What Is Metabolism and Can We Really Change It?

What is fact and what is fiction about boosting your metabolism?

Metabolism is a complex process of converting calories from food into energy for our body’s needs. Many chemical reactions are involved in this process. They occur during digestion, physical activity, breathing and many other internal processes necessary to maintain our life.

The word “metabolism” is often used by dieters and fitness instructors in order to explain, why do we gain weight and how to avoid it. However, not everyone knows what metabolism actually is.

What is Metabolism

Metabolism is a process that takes place in any living being to sustain its life. Metabolism allows the cells to perform various functions, so our body can grow, heal itself and respond to the environment. We can divide all metabolic processes into two categories. Destructive processes are called catabolism, while constructive are called anabolism.

Nutrients that enter the body cannot be used immediately for its needs. For example, proteins from nuts and milk are completely different from proteins in our muscles and cannot replace each other. However, they consist of smaller building blocks, amino acids. Proteins of different kinds have a different sets of them.

Special enzymes in our body break down proteins contained in food into individual amino acids, so we can obtain blocks to build various cells. During this process energy is released, which can be measured in calories. Another example of catabolism is the breaking down of ordinary refined sugar into fructose and glucose.

However, it is not enough to break down proteins into amino acids. We need to create new proteins to build muscles and other cells. To construct new molecules from smaller components energy is required. This process of creating new molecules is called anabolism.

Where Does Fat Come From?

During nutrient breakdown, if more energy is produced than is required to create new cells in the body, an excess of energy occurs. When we are at rest, there is no need to break down and synthesize a lot of substances. But as soon as the body begins to move, all metabolic processes are accelerated and intensified. The need for energy and nutrients also increases.

But no matter how physically active a person is, an excess of calories can occur if we eat too much. A small part of it will be stored in muscles and liver as a spare energy source. The rest is accumulated in fat cells. Each 9 kcal of excess energy will be stored as 1 gram of fat in our body.

Here is a simple example: suppose you eat a sandwich and lie down on the couch. The body receives fats, proteins, carbohydrates and 140 kcal of energy. While lying down, the body uses about 50 kcal per hour to maintain its basic functions like breathing and blood circulation. The remaining 90 kcal will turn into10 gram of fat stored in your body. However, if you will go out on a walk instead of lying down, you will use all those calories in about an hour.

Metabolic Rate

We constantly need energy to breath, circulate blood and maintain chemical balance in the body. The number of calories we need to sustain those vital functions is called basal metabolic rate.

Our basal metabolic rate is fairly stable and can be calculated in several ways. The most reliable way is to get tested in a medical lab. You can calculate the value yourself using these formulas:

For man: (13.4 * weight/kg) + (4.8 * height/cm) – (5.7 * age) + 88.4

For women: (9.3 * weight/kg) + (3.1 * height/cm) – (4.3 * age) + 447.6

Total metabolic rate is a combination of fairly stable basal metabolic rate and other processes like physical activity that can change from day to day.

Why Is My Metabolism Slow?

Some people believe that they gain excess weight because their metabolism is slow. In fact, studies show that slow metabolism occurs only in a number of diseases, for example, a deficiency of the thyroid hormone. Most people with excess weight do not have such diseases, but an energy imbalance. That is, the body does not use all the energy produced from food, so it is stored in fat cells.

How Can I Change My Metabolism to Lose Weight?

It is obvious that physical movement of any kind, including daily activities like walking or cleaning, will increase your metabolic rate and help you burn calories. If you want to lose weight without significantly increasing physical activity, focus on a balanced diet.

There are lots of foods that will actually worsen your metabolism. First of all, you will have to give up white bread, fast-foods, sweet sodas and other products with a high glycemic index. Remember to drink enough water – it is necessary for digestion and other important metabolic processes.

Caffeine and various fat burners increase brain activity and accelerate metabolism indirectly. Note that taking such substances can cause negative side effects like increased blood pressure, excessive sweating and various sleep disorders.

Keep in mind these additional facts to understand metabolism:

  1. The higher the body weight, the more calories we need. However, muscles consume much more energy than fat cells. Therefore, a bodybuilder will spend more calories than his counterpart of the same weight with undeveloped muscles.
  2. Metabolism worsens with age because of hormonal imbalance and a sharp decrease in physical activity.
  3. In a men’s body, testosterone is actively involved in metabolism. This is a natural anabolic, which forces the body to spend energy on growing additional muscles. Since much energy is needed to support muscles, a men and a woman of the same height and weight spend an unequal amount of calories during same activities. Simply put, men spend more energy and can lose weight more quickly.

How to Avoid Fad Diets and Start Eating Healthy

Stop harming yourself with fad diets and find a natural way to live happy and healthy!

Fad diets are no good for you. Surely, they can result in rapid loss of weight, given you follow them strictly. However, bear in mind that fad diets can harm your health and self-esteem; being designed mainly to lose weight fad diets usually are unhealthy and unbalanced. In a long term, they may result in energy loss and health problems because of malnutrition.

Fad diets require you to change your normal eating patterns. They are difficult to follow because of rules, which can be very different from your common habits. Because of that, most people give up not achieving the desired result, and the weight they lost comes back in no time. Being disappointed they find a new diet, lose and gain weight again, soon finding themselves running in circles. It is surely frustrating.

So why follow a diet that cannot give a sustained result, harming your body and self-esteem? Give it up. Instead of worrying about the dress size, think about healthy eating, which allows you to look and feel great, both physically and emotionally.

#1 Choose Healthy Foods

How do you know which foods are good for you? The principle is simple – the more natural your food is, the better it is for your body. Choose less processed products with no chemical additives and preservatives.

Fruits and berries can satisfy your craving for sugar in a healthy way. Combine your favorites to make salads with homemade dressings or buy a high-speed blender to make smoothies.

Do not forget about fresh vegetables, which contain many essential nutrients. To preserve the most nutritional qualities, eat them raw or steam cook them. Be aware that creamy and cheesy sauces are high in calories and make you gain weight easily.

Choose whole grain pastry over baked goods made from white floor. White floor has little nutritional value and contain high amounts of starch that affects blood sugar. Avoid products with refined sugar; choose a raw apple over an apple pie.

Be sure to add fish to your diet, since omega-3 fatty acids are essential for our body. Buy lean meats and avoid processed ones like sausages, hot dogs, and bacon. The way of cooking also matters: baked foods are always healthier than fried.

Water is the best drink choice; add some lemon to give it a touch of flavor. Herbal and green teas, as well as coffee can be good for you, but avoid sugary sodas and store-bought juices.

#2 Analyze Your Habits

Making your life more healthy and happy means analyzing your habits and deciding which ones should be left behind for your own good. Changing old habits is not easy, so do not try to achieve too much in a short time. These questions just might give you a hint where to start:

  • Do you eat because of boredom, stress, or sadness?
  • Do you often snack without even thinking about it?
  • Do you often skip breakfast and overeat in the evening?
  • How often do you visit fast food restaurants?
  • Do you enjoy cooking at home?
  • Are there kinds of food that would be very difficult to give up?

#3 Stop the Unhealthy Snacking

Some people tend to eat because of stress, sadness or even excitement, not noticing that they actually overdoing with unhealthy and high-calorie food. Since this habit is difficult to get rid of, a good advice is not to keep snacks like chips, cookies and sweets at home. Replace them with healthier alternatives like berries, fruits, and low-calorie granola bars. You can even buy a bar of dark chocolate to satisfy your special cravings. The same works for those who eat in front of the TV by force of habit.

#4 Tips for Dining Out

If you have most of your meals at a restaurant, it is not easy to keep eating healthy. Stick to soups and salads; avoid deserts and sweet after-dinner drinks. As an option, order a glass of wine and a scoop of ice cream after the main meal. Some restaurants offer large portions that do not match your needs; share them with a friend or choose smaller portions. Fast food dining is the greatest enemy for healthy living, so try to avoid it at all costs.

#5 Not Passionate about Cooking?

Although cooking at home is the best way to start eating healthy, you just might hate cooking. There is no need to spend hours cooking every day; you can try buying prepared food from the stores that offer healthy meals. If you are tight on budget, pick some time on weekends, cook and freeze food, so you can warm it up later in the week.

Do not shop for groceries when you are hungry. While shopping, stay away from shelves with junk food, artificial cheese products and processed meats.

#6 Don’t Skip Meals

Breakfast is an essential that provides you with energy for the day. Always eat at leas a small breakfast early in the morning, for example, an egg, some oats or some yoghurt. Later in the morning you may a healthy snack such as nuts or raisins, which provide you with more energy.

In fact, every meal is important. Skipping essential meals like lunch or dinner, you may easily overeat later because of feeling hungry.

#7 Control Portion Size

Surprisingly, our stomach can hold only two cups of food without stretching. But because of its ability to stretch, we can eat considerably more food then we need for one meal! To avoid overeating, serve your meal on an individual plate. Dining in restaurants, ask for takeaway containers to take half of your meal home.

If you have some favorites you just cannot give up, you actually don’t have to. Simply take smaller portions of the same treats, like a normal sized cup of latte instead of a giant one. Limit unhealthy foods you like little by little, or try to find healthy alternatives for them.

It is only natural that changing habits takes a lot of time and effort. Instead of creating high expectations and blaming yourself for not being able to meet them, make little but persistent steps to your new healthy lifestyle. Remember, Rome wasn’t built in a day.

Digestion Of Carbohydrates

Digestion is the process of decomposition of food and macronutrients (protein, carbohydrates, fats) into small / basic units and their absorption and transport to target tissues. The aim of the digestion of carbohydrates are the simplest carbohydrates / sugar. that can be absorbed by the intestines and the blood is transferred to the city, where is then metabolized.

Chemical formula of carbohydrates

The original general chemical formula of carbohydrates is (CH2O) n. The relationship between hydrogen and oxygen is therefore 2:1. A newer definition of the group of carbohydrates includes substances for which this ratio is different, but have the characteristics of the “real” carbs. In addition, the formula may also include nitrogen and sulfur.

Division of Carbohydrate

Carbohydrates can be divided into monosaccharides, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides.

Or monosaccharides. divided into simple sugars hexoses (glucose, fructose, galactose, mannose) and pentose (ribose, ribulose, etc..). The intestine can absorb only monosaccharides.

Among oligosaccharides, consisting of 2 to 10 units of simple sugars, including:maltose, which are composed of two molecules of glucose; or sucrose. table sugar is composed of molecules of glucose and fructose; or lactose. milk sugar, which is composed of molecules of glucose and galactose. To digest lactose enzyme lactase needed only that many people lack, this condition is called lactose intolerance. trisaccharide raffinose and melezitose.

Polysaccharides can be divided into digestible (glycogen, starch, etc..) Partially digestible and indigestible. Indigestible polysaccharides or. fiber further divided into insoluble and soluble (hemicellulose, pectin, etc.).

Digestion of carbohydrates

Digestion of carbohydrates begins immediately after eating – in the mouth. By biting the mechanical fragmentation occurs, the enzyme alpha amylase (AA) and proceed with its chemical action – chemical digestion. AA cleaves starch and other polysaccharides into smaller units. In the mouth, food is impregnated with saliva (and hence the AA), so that digestion of carbohydrates takes place in all the way to the stomach, where stomach acid neutralizes the operation of AA.

The digestion then continues in the small intestine where pancreatic AA arrived carbohydrates to cleave even tighter: maltose, maltotriozo, short oligosaccharides, etc..

The last part of the cleavage of di-and oligosaccharides are enforced under the influence of surface enzymes (oligosaccharide and disaharidaze) secreted by cells lining the small intestine – enterocytes. The resulting monosaccharides are then absorbed through enterocito blood.

Di-, oligo-and polysaccharides by alpha-amylase and the small bowel surface enzymes have not been able to break down, they cannot absorb. These saccharides may be used by bacteria that are located on the lower part of the small intestine further, because they have many more types of suitable enzymes – saccharide as a man.

Monosaccharides (mainly as glucose) and then travel through the blood to target tissues, but cannot enter cells by diffusion, since they would have to move against the concentration gradient and therefore to pass through the cell walls need conveyors. These are different for different tissues (6 different transporters: GLUT-1 (Glucose Transporter Briefings type 4), GLUT-2, GLUT-3, GLUT-4, GLUT-5, SGLT-1), all – except for muscle transporter , heart and adipose (GLUT-4) – are independent of the hormone insulin (which means that glucose can cross the cell wall without the presence of insulin).

After eating, the blood glucose is therefore increased, which causes increased secretion of the hormone insulin. Insulin binds to the receptor wall of the target cells (skeletal and cardiac muscle cells and fat cells), which in a cell with a range of reactions that lead to vesicle transport by GLUT-4 transporters, which are stored within the cell to the surface of the cell wall. Vesicles then fuse with the wall, conveyor belts are activated and glucose can cross the cell wall. With the fall of blood glucose reduces the secretion of insulin, insulin receptors are deactivated and transporters are re-stored in vesicles

Glutamine And Digestion of OH During and After Exercise

Glutamine is one of the most abundant / widespread amino acid in the body and plays a key metabolic role in many important biological processes.

Glutamine provides optimal functioning of the immune and nervous systems, helps maintain the acid-base balance and normal blood acidity, helps in establishing and maintaining the integrity of the digestive tract, a positive effect on nitrogen balance and prevent muscle breakdown (muscle catabolism) and helps to regenerate the body, stimulates secretion of growth hormone and the formation of glutathione, the body’s own antioxidant fittest, etc..

The amount of glutamine in skeletal muscle may be due to different types of metabolic stress extremely reduced, resulting in some glutamine characterized as conditionally essential amino acid.

Does the availability of glutamine during and after exercise is limited, as yet not fully understood. One of the reasons for this are themselves, or research differences in their designs (length of study, the intensity and length of training, studying the concentration of glutamine in the blood or muscle, etc..). Thus, for example some studies have shown that the amount of glutamine in the circulation during exercise is increased, others to decrease. Previous research has also shown that the net loss of glutamine from muscle is greater during exercise than at rest and that the availability of glutamine significantly decreased after exercise, especially in a very intensive training.

Little is known about the impact of the availability of glutamine metabolism during and after exercise. Recent studies indicate that glutamine has an important role in maintaining homeostasis of blood sugar, since the carbon in glutamine entry into the Krebs cycle and thus contribute to gluconeogenesis (glucose production). Moreover, glutamine also promotes consumption of whole body glucose uptake and glucose loaded / active muscles.

It is known that in order to ensure sufficient energy during exercise increases glucose uptake in the loaded and unencumbered tissues, liver – because of increased need for glucose – increased production of it. After exercise the uptake of glucose remains in the tissues increased for some time, but also increased sensitivity to insulin, which promotes the regeneration of glycogen in skeletal muscle and liver.

Treatment Of Hypertension

The main purpose of antihypertensive therapy is to reduce morbidity and mortality due to cardiovascular and kidney diseases. Successful control of hypertension is not simply to achieve normal blood pressure, but to eliminate or control any other risk factors which can affect, and appropriate treatment of associated clinical disease.

New European guidelines for the treatment of arterial hypertension in 2003  guidelines were adopted that year, defined as achieving a target blood pressure of 140/90 mmHg or below low blood pressure, which is tolerated. In diabetes and kidney disease recommend lowering blood pressure below 130/80 mmHg in patients with proteinuria greater than 1 g / 24 hours, and below 125/75 mmHg.

Pharmacology of anti-hypertensive drugs:

Thiazide diuretics: inhibit cotransport sodium and chlorine from the distal lumen of the initial work of twisted channel. As more and more remains of sodium and chlorine remains the more water is excreted in the urine. The volume of extracellular fluid and plasma is reduced. Followed by decreased venous return and reducing cardiac output. Blood pressure is lowered, peripheral vascular resistance increases. Later, self-regulation of extracellular fluid volume increased peripheral vascular resistance is reduced, blood pressure, but continues to be reduced. Thus, at baseline low blood pressure due to dehydration, and subsequently to reduce peripheral resistance. Side effects: hypokalemia, hypomagnesaemia, hyperuricaemia, but rarely hypercalcaemia.

Beta blockers: are among the drugs that block the renin-angiotensin system, while inhibiting the activity of the sympathetic nervous system. Reduced blood pressure by reducing cardiac output, renin secretion, central sympathetic activity and peripheral vascular resistance. Beta-blockers differ depending on the solubility in fats. Those that are soluble and is rapidly metabolized in the liver, so that their effect is shorter. Slightly soluble in fats are excreted through the kidneys slowly and therefore their operation is prolonged.

ACE inhibitors: inhibit an important enzyme in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system.

Calcium channel antagonists: reduce the entry of calcium into cells of conducting system, and therefore its concentration in them is reduced. Smooth-muscle cells in the walls of arteries are therefore less reduced, which caused the spread of blood vessels. Resistance is lower in the artery, blood pressure decreases. Do not disturb the metabolism of sugar, fat and cause hypokalemia.

Sleep Better With Regular Bedtime Schedule

To achieve a truly good night sleep, you need to synchronize again your organism’s sleep-wake cycle and your circadian rhythm. With a regular sleep schedule, meaning to go to bed and wake up at the same time on a daily basis, you can have a more energized and refreshing sleep than if you sleep the same amount of time but at different intervals. The same principle applies even if you only manage to modify your regular sleeping schedule with an hour or two. What is really important is to remain consistent.

Establish a regular bedtime. It is important to go to bed every night at the same time. It is best to set a time when you generally feel tired or even sleepy. This bedtime routine should not be broken on weekends, when you might consider staying up late. In case you need to modify your bedtime, it is preferable to make the changes in small increments, for instance 10-15 minutes earlier or later every day.

Get out of bed at the same time every morning. If you are getting sufficient sleep, you should be able to easily wake up without any alarm. If you need to use an alarm to wake up on time, you should consider setting an earlier bedtime. It is preferable to stay with your normal wake up time on weekends as well.

Nap to compensate the lost sleep. If you have to compensate a couple of lost hours, it is better to take a daytime nap than opting for sleeping late. Thus, you will recover the lost hours and will not interfere with your natural sleep-wake cycle that would cause insomnia even for days.

Take a nap, but do it smart. Even if a nap can boosts your energy level, it can still make insomnia a lot worse. If you are experiencing such sleeping problems, it is better not to take a nap during the day. However, if you need a nap, take in the early afternoon and limit it to half an hour.

Get rid of after-dinner sleepiness. If you feel sleepy long before your usual bedtime, just get off the couch and start an activity that would moderately stimulate you, for instance, preparing clothes for the next day, calling a friend or relative, or washing the dishes. If you fall asleep on the couch for a certain period of time, you might wake up sometimes in the night, without being able to easily go back to sleep.

Find out your most favorable sleep schedule

First, locate a time frame (a couple of weeks at most) when you can freely experiment with various sleep and wake times. In the evening, go to sleep at the same time and sleep until you wake up ion your own, without using any alarm. If your sleep is disturbed, it might set you back for weeks. As you go to sleep and wake up at the same time, it is just a matter of time, till you discover your optimum sleep schedule.

Psychophysiological Insomnia

Psychophysiological insomnia and insomnia is the most common acquired form of insomnia. These patients have a feeling that poor sleep, which can be objectively confirmed by polysomnography recording (method for determining the stages of sleep; include at least three biological measurements: measurements of brain electrical activity-EEG, detection of eye movements, EOG, measuring the electrical activity of muscles under the chin-EMG) . Psychophysiological insomnia is most commonly in the chronic form (which explains why events in patients who were present at the beginning of the disease had long since forgotten). Usually patients are very concerned about their insomnia, slow to develop a vicious circle: when trying to sleep more and are more upset by this and thus reduce the opportunity to really fall asleep. Sleeping is slowly deteriorating until the patient’s primary and only thought of it becomes a desire to be a good sleep, which prevents this really, happened.

You can usually fall asleep in other situations when you do not think about how they slept, for example: watching TV, reading, driving … Even in an unfamiliar environment, for example: in a hotel on vacation, in the laboratory, sleep better than at home.

Most insomnia is a chronic condition, but there may be brief periods of good sleep, for example: during the leave. Various internal and external causes that lead to insomnia, aggravated by other factors, such as depression, pain, work in shifts, inadequate sleep environment, …

The frequency of disease among populations in different studies varies. In sleeping centers 15% of all people diagnosed with insomnia receive Psychophysiological insomnia. Disorder in childhood and adolescence is rare, usually first appears in smaller adults (20-30 years) and slowly increases until middle age. Repeatedly complain of insomnia women than men.

The clearance recording polysomnography these subjects found the parameters of insomnia, such as prolonged sleep latency, increased wakefulness during sleep, reduced sleep efficiency. A common phenomenon is the opposite of the first night: Patients in the sleeping laboratory sleep better than at home.

Obesity Due To Lack Of Sleep

Today, on average, we sleep less than we burn a few decades ago, while (as in most developed countries in our country) increasing body mass index of the population. These two phenomena linked to each other? Is it really possible that breeds because lack of sleep?

Obesity in developed countries is fast becoming one of the leading causes of death – mostly indirectly, of course: obesity is the increased risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The problem with the fight against obesity is that the complex interweaving of causes that lead to obesity, there is no miracle cure, which would eliminate this scourge.

Many believe that to when and how we are hungry, what we eat and the extent to expend energy, affect our sleeping habits (more on the importance of sleep Sleep in the article). Indisputable fact that today, much less sleep as we sleep sometimes. The pressures on our personal time and its allocation are evil: mostly work for longer than we did, the more time devoted to self, family, increasing the amount of time we spend watching TV or the computer. All this affects the amount of time you can spend the night. Some research suggests that in developed countries, the average length of sleep in the last 50 years shorter for the whole two hours a night!

This topic has been carried out more research – both among adults than among adolescents and children, both in America and in Europe and Japan. In all studies have shown that there is a positive correlation between lack of sleep and obesity.

Researchers from Laval University in Quebec has been studied sleep habits of children 422 (211 boys and 211 girls) mean age of six and a half years. Measured as their height, weight and waist circumference, data on sleeping habits were obtained through interviews with parents. The results were unequivocal: he was too fat 1 in 5 boys and 1 in 4 girls. For children who slept an average of 10.5 to 11.5 hours a day, was likely to be obese, 40% higher than in children who slept 12 to 13 hours a day.

Similar findings have come in several studies in adults. The long continued research on health and nutrition of Americans (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey), for example, came to the following conclusions:in people who sleep less than seven hours a day, it appeared that the likelihood that obese at the very beginning of the study were higher than among those who sleep more;in people who sleep five hours a day, the likelihood of obesity was 73% higher than in those who slept 7 to 9 hours. For those who sleep six hours, the likelihood was 27% higher.

Why lack of sleep increases the chances of obesity?

Today the link between lack of sleep and obesity is no longer a complete mystery. It is known that sleep deprivation affects the secretion of two important, the hormones that regulate appetite: leptin and ghrelina.

Leptin secreted by fat cells, which reported on the status of fat stores. Leptin reduces appetite and stimulates metabolism. Ghrelin, secreted by specialized cells lining the stomach, but – quite the opposite – increases appetite. Low levels of leptin and high levels ghrelina means that the body needs energy, that is a signal for hunger.

That’s exactly what happens when lack of sleep. secretion of leptin is reduced, but increased secretion ghrelina, the result is:increased appetite (due to low levels of leptin and a too high level ghrelina) andslower metabolism (metabolism) (due to low levels of leptin).

The fact that we live in a society where the (energy-rich) foods most at your fingertips, it means only consume more food – not necessarily the actual energy needs.

Sleepless eat more:because our body with all the signals are telling that we are hungry;because we were exhausted and we seem to need more energy (in fact, take more rest!)because in insomnia be emotionally empty and looking for comfort food …

One explanation for why this happens is that it is an evolutionary adaptation: a man has got used to store energy in fat stores during the summer when nights are short and when there is plenty of food, so that in winter, when nights are long , food is in abundance, can also survive on their own (fatty) energy reserves.

How much would you need to sleep?

Despite the fact that the results of several studies on the connection between lack of sleep and obesity-match, but the scientific evidence on how much sleep should a man have to afford to avoid the dangers of sleep deprivation, no.

But from the findings of some studies suggest that the average man should sleep at least 8 hours a day. Anything less than 7 hours of sleep a day, is seriously tinkering with the physical and mental health. Lack of sleep can cause many inconveniences, such as problems with memory and concentration, chronic pain, impaired reflexes, difficulty in managing emotions, irritability, a weakened immune system, but can also lead us to obesity.

Of course there are people who sleep a little, but they do not have any problems with obesity. Usually they are quite hyperactive people who, due to the small number of sleeping hours in fact do not suffer, but in those few hours of sleep as needed, CWG own. The vast majority of us should ever do anything more for himself: to recognize that sleep is a waste of time and extended for at least an hour. Each extra hour of sleep counts!

Creatine And Osteoarthritis

Due to age, injury, illness, increased physical load and some other factors could lead to osteoarthritis, degenerative joint disease characterized by progressive destruction of normal articular cartilage and the cartilage of bone tissue. The main symptoms of osteoarthritis are pain in the affected joints, worsening of motion, joint swelling, ultimately can lead to anatomical deformation of the joints (characterized by thickening of the conclusions of the fingers).

Treatment of osteoarthritis includes the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, paracetamol, local injections of corticosteroids, hyaluronic acid, etc.., Surgical replacement of joints, in some cases, appropriate implantation of autologous chondrocytes also (newer procedure for reconstruction of articular cartilage).

To relieve the symptoms of osteoarthritis are used various thermal therapeutic procedures (eg cold and hot compresses), low intensity physical activity, various relaxation techniques and supports, as complementary therapy but may also be useful supplements of omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin B9 and B12, selenium , bromelain, hydrolysed collagen, chondroitin and glucosamine. A recent survey was published in a professional journal Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, showed that it can alleviate symptoms of osteoarthritis also effective creatine, the body’s own substance, which is involved in anaerobic ATP-PCR system,  to provide power for the muscle and nerve cells.


Most of the more than 200 studies, which have until now dealt with the use of the additive effects of creatine on physical performance, has proven to be the only significant effect on the athlete’s capacity, which has the practical experience and millions of users.

The increased amount of creatine in muscle tissue, thus allowing greater flow of energy for high-intensitywork, regeneration of high-intensity exercise, the series can be faster, so the athlete can handle more work per unit time, through the activation of these satellite cell creatine allows muscle cell hypertrophy, etc.. Recent research also suggests that the consumption of creatine increases the local production of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) during training with weights, which also affects the more strained muscle hypertrophy.

Creatine is sometimes also used as part of the treatment of various diseases (muscular dystrophy, Alzheimer’s disease), has a positive effect on the sensitivity of body cells to the hormone insulin, which can benefit diabetics, improves cognitive function and may reduce homocysteine ​​levels, which would be an important factor the risk of cardiovascular disease.

Creatine and osteoarthritis

The above study on the effects of creatine use on symptoms of osteoarthritis involving 26 women with knee osteoarthritis. The study lasted 12 weeks, women were divided into two groups (each 13). Both groups were carried out under professional supervision to train with weight. (the ejection of the knee on the bench, leg thrust and squat), as well as the first group received a supplement of creatine (the first week after the 20 g daily, then 5 g / day) and the other placebo.

The survey produced the following results: Functionality has been improved significantly only in patients who took creatine. Stiffness decreased only in patients who took creatine. Only women, who were taking creatine, have improved the quality of life indicators and the amount of lean mass of legs.

In both groups, it is important to reduce pain in the knees. Among the groups there was no difference in yield strength.

Research has already long list of positive effects of creatine added another option, but once again confirmed that, for people with osteoarthritis as exercise with weight. only useful and can contribute significantly to alleviating the symptoms, especially pain.

How Can We Reduce Cholesterol In The Blood

Adequate nutrition

Healthy food should contain a minimum of saturated fatty acids (which are butter, bacon, lard, etc..) and salt, and as many vegetables, fruits and water-soluble fiber. Such foods reduce the fat in the blood, thereby protecting blood vessels. Should eat at least four times a day. Breakfast is one of the most important meal and it really should not let go. Last meal eat at least two hours before bedtime. Avoid snacks.

Fats are not banned, but aware of the need to be highly calorific and therefore must be consumed only in limited quantities, especially when taking the diet also reduced body weight.

In moderate quantities we consume polyunsaturated fatty acidsalso reduce the cholesterol in the blood. These fatty acids are vegetable oils (sunflower, corn, rapeseed) and in food products from these seeds. Very useful are the fish (sardine, tuna, etc..) Rich in omega 3 fatty acids These acids act on the heart protective. You should eat fish at least once a week.

Helpful monounsaturated fatty acidsin olive oil and avocados. Many experts recommend it in moderation, reducing cholesterol in the blood.

Harmful as saturated fatty acids contained in meat and meat products, cheese and whole milk, and, trans-fatty acids in margarine, because they increase the content of cholesterol and coronary risk. These food products should be avoided.

It is desirable to eat foods containing more fiber (cereals, vegetables, fruits, legumes and various nuts). These foods reduce cholesterol and LDL cholesterol more effectively than this can be achieved by limiting intake of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol. In addition, they provide a feeling of satiety and help regulate body weight. Soluble fiber (eg psyllium pods, guar gum, oat bran – 3g/day) effectively reduce cholesterol in the blood.

Green tea reduces the amount of harmful cholesterol and increasing beneficial HDL cholesterol content. Believe that catechin, a substance that inhibits the absorption of cholesterol in the intestines and promote its excretion from the body. Green tea contains antioxidant substances that would prevent the formation of cancer.

Numerous studies have shown that daily consumption of soy (20 to 40 g) instead of animal protein can reduce cholesterol.

The flowers and fruits of white hawthorn in folk medicine and homeopathy is very popular for the prevention of heart attacks, chest pain, arrhythmias and heart failure. Research has shown that the tincture of white hawthorn fruits effectively reduce cholesterol. Experiments have shown that in animals tincture cholesterol inhibits the formation of the liver in humans, this operation has not yet been confirmed.

Many studies have shown that garlic reduces cholesterol in the blood. It is not clear how much you need to eat and whether there is a difference in performance when consumed fresh garlic or garlic preparations.