Role Played by Antibodies in Diabetes

Role Played by Antibodies in Diabetes

To help in its earlier diagnosis, researchers keep investigating specific genetic markers that can predict a possible risk for developing diabetes before its process is underway. The role played by antibodies is one of the most important areas of interest.

Diabetes and Antibodies

Antibodies are special proteins in the blood and other body parts. They attack and detect all foreign substances in the human body, including harmful bacteria and viruses. Sometimes, antibodies may malfunction and start attacking body systems. When it happens, they are called autoantibodies. Patients who have diabetes type 1 often have autoantibodies that attack and destroy the islet beta cells in the pancreas that produce insulin. This attack on the immune system may also happen in patients with diabetes type 2, but it occurs less often.

There are certain antibodies identified as linked to the development of this serious condition, including ICA and GADA. They fight unwanted proteins on and in islet beta cells. Patients with diabetes type 1 may have a higher level of these antibodies to fend off outside attacks along with autoantibodies that attack body systems. Any autoantibody attack destroys the islet cells that antibodies protect. About 95% of kids with diabetes type 1 have a high level of GADA and ICA, while about 25% of adult patients with diabetes type 2 have increased levels of these autoantibodies.

Early Screening of Antibodies

According to the latest research, the presence of GADA autoantibodies is a strong predictive market for a future onset of diabetes type 1. In most cases, they are present before the early symptoms of diabetes and prediabetes. Blood tests are required to screen for autoantibodies, especially in siblings of people diagnosed with diabetes type 1. That’s because they help doctors predict if their patients have a risk of developing diabetes and determine its type. This early detection enables all kinds of preventive measures to stop the onset of this serious disease.

Effective Diabetes Management and Antibodies

Many people tend to develop diabetes type 2, because they lead a sedentary lifestyle and are overweight. However, some patients with this condition can have autoantibodies and antibodies at as high and even higher levels compared to people with diabetes type 1. If they are diagnosed with diabetes type 2, they usually want to make certain blood tests to determine whether they have any autoantibodies in the body. If they have a high level of autoantibodies, they’re more likely to use insulin in the future. These details help doctors and patients predict the future course of this disease and if they will eventually require insulin to manage it.

In-Between Diabetes or Latent Autoimmune Diabetes of Adults

Some patients may develop adult-onset diabetes that may resemble diabetes type 2 and respond to all kinds of oral diabetic meds. Within several years they lose their effectiveness, so people start using insulin. This type of diabetes is also called LADA, or latent autoimmune diabetes of adults, diabetes type 1.5, and in-between diabetes. The main reason is that it starts as diabetes type 2 before turning into insulin-dependent diabetes type 1.

Patients with this condition have a higher level of GADA and ICA and a higher level of malfunctioning autoantibodies. The latter ones start overwhelming antibodies over time, thus, destroying the ability of the body to produce insulin. When it happens, diabetes type 2 turns into diabetes type 1.

Medical professionals claim that because patients with LADA have a high level of correctly functioning antibodies, the immune system can suppress autoantibodies more efficiently and for a longer period of time compared to people who have diabetes type 1 at an early age. Over time, autoantibodies of patients with LADA start destroying the ability of the body to produce insulin. That’s why people with LADA start developing insulin dependency faster compared to typical patients with diabetes type 2.

In addition, it’s worth mentioning that some patients may have both types of malfunctioning autoantibodies, but they never develop any form of diabetes. Remember that the most important risk factors to be diagnosed with diabetes type 2, including your weight and diet, are not linked to the malfunctioning of your immune system. The good news is that these risk factors can be easily controlled if you choose healthy lifestyle habits. Your health should be monitored by doctors on a regular basis too.

How to Diagnose and Treat Type 2 Diabetes

How to Diagnose and Treat Type 2 Diabetes

About 347 million people all over the world have diabetes. According to the American Diabetes Association, this health problem is diagnosed in about 29.1 million people in the USA; 86 million people have prediabetes, and about 8.1 million people do not know that they have it. Effective prevention and treatment depend on various factors, and you can do a lot to help yourself with it.

What You Can Do

If you have diabetes, it is very important to know how you can manage this condition. You should provide your physician with all the needed information, and if you have questions, you should ask them to clarify all the matters. This helps not only you, but also your healthcare provider, allowing him/her to determine the right diagnosis and make an effective treatment plan. Unfortunately, sometimes Type 2 diabetes remains untreated or treated poorly without a patient even knowing about it. That is why it is so important to learn as much as possible about this problem.

Check Your Numbers

If your healthcare provider tells you that you have increased levels of sugar, you should check the numbers. Do not miss your chance to manage this health problem at its early stages of development. Remember that you are at a higher risk if someone in your family has Type 2 diabetes, if you are over 40 years old, if you have excessive weight, heart disease or other health conditions. In this case, your doctor may recommend that you conduct a special test called Hemoglobin A1C. Thanks to this blood test, you can find out how your body utilizes sugar to determine your risk of having diabetes. Over three months, red blood cells die due to glucose or sugar that attaches to them. The A1C allows seeing a 3-month average of blood sugar.

If A1C shows 5.7-6.4%, it is considered to be a prediabetes range, which means that you can still do lots of things to prolong or prevent diabetes with exercise, diet and weight loss. This test is also helpful for people with diabetes, because it allows understanding where your sugars are ranging. According to some studies, people with diabetes can reduce the risk of microvascular complications of kidneys and eyes if they manage their blood glucose levels. The American Diabetes Association recommends keeping an A1C not more than 7%, and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists believes that it should be not higher than 6.5%.

Find out More about Medications

It is a usual situation when a patient has a long list of medications and has no clue what they are for. This may cause problems, because if you do not know what these medications treat, you may take them incorrectly. That is why, you should find out as much information as possible about each drug that you use, including when to take it, dosage, possible side effects, etc. For instance, if you use a sulfonylurea (a medicine that initiates your pancreas to produce insulin) and use it without food, your blood sugar can go low.

Usually, it takes some time to find the most effective and safe medications. In order to find out information on the drugs you take, you should ask your healthcare provider. You can also use other sources if you know that they are reliable.

Determine Your Network of Specialists

Seeing different healthcare professionals may be overwhelming, but you have to meet at least some of them time to time. That is why you should determine what medical professionals should be included in your network. For instance, if you have diabetes and you are over 30 years old, you should see an ophthalmologist to have an eye exam one time a year. You also want to include a dietitian in your list, who can help you create an effective meal plan.

Other specialists that you also need to visits are the following:

• Cardiologist;
• Podiatrist;
• Endocrinologist;
• Vascular doctor.

If you are not sure what healthcare professionals you should see regularly, you can ask your physician.

Pay Attention to Symptoms

If you start experiencing unusual symptoms, such as pain or discomfort, you should visit your doctor. It is important to listen to your body, which will help you prevent the development of a range of issues. Diabetes can be managed, but if you pay no attention to its symptoms for a long time, your health condition may get much worse.

How to Choose a Sleep Doctor

How to Choose a Sleep Doctor

If you have difficulties with slipping, you should seek help from a sleep doctor but how to choose him? Of course, your attending physician can give you an appointment card to a sleep doctor but you have more options here than you expect. Before choosing a specialist who will treat and help you, you should take into account the following details.

Who is a sleep doctor

If you suffer from sleep disorder and seek a cure for this, you should know that many professionals will take part in your care. As already mentioned, the first doctor you should visit is your attending physician. Then, he can refer you to a sleep expert, most often a practitioner too, or to a midlevel specialist, for example, a nurse practitioner or a medical assistant fulfilling his duty supervised by a physician. Auxiliary staff studying your sleep may be also involved. So, one of the most significant part of your treatment is a choice of your sleep specialist and the medical center providing your treatment.

Sleep specialist training

Certified sleep specialists have studied for many years.
Doctors become college graduates after four-year education, go to medical school, then finish their three or five-year residency and, finally, study sleep medicine for two years. Specialists can pursue their sleep fellowship after studying many specialties, for example:

• Pulmonary medicine;
• Family practice;
• General medicine;
• Pediatrics;
• Neurology;
• Mental medicine;
• Otorhinolaryngology.

Some doctors may practice sleep medicine even if they are not formally certified. But sleep specialists of superior expert category study for a very long time, complete their training and pass national examination showing their professionalism. Moreover, graduates who have recently completed their study need to show their great knowledge of this sphere and to be re-certified every 10 years taking board exams.

Selecting a sleep doctor with credentials

First of all, you should consult the doctor who has a sleep medicine credential and who is certified by American Board of Medical Specialties. This means that professionalism of the specialist was inspected and that he passed all board tests and exams proving his knowledge in this sphere.

If you need to go through additional sleep tests beyond a clinic evaluation, you can also visit a sleep center accredited by Academy of Sleep Medicine.

Selecting a right sleep doctor

Now it is not so difficult to find a sleep specialist. You may ask your attending physician, family members or friends for some advice. You may read some feedbacks or comments on the work of a particular doctor online, as we live in the Internet era. Make sure that the chosen specialist is accessible and affordable to you and that he will provide a proper treatment.

After choosing the doctor you will probably want to be aware of if the doctor can fit your specific needs. In the first stage, you can check it by considering how your condition is diagnosed.

You can also choose a center providing more thorough testing including:

• Polysomnography;
• Testing on sleep apnea;
• Testing on hyposomnia;
• Testing on sleep latency.

From day to day more resources and methods available appear, technologies are developing, and this all gives you a good opportunity to find a reliable sleep specialist meeting all your needs.

The Main Signs of Sleep Apnea

If you feel tired and absent-minded in the morning, despite of a long sleep, this is the first sign to consult a doctor. In such a way the symptoms of apnea are presented. Apnea often happens in snoring people. This is a stop of breathing while sleeping, and it might cause severe health problems. Consider the main signs of obstructive sleep apnea in order to improve this problem.


Disturbances of breathing during sleep can cause chronic depression. According to the results of the research, there is a cause-effect relationship between the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and the development depressive symptoms. Excess daytime sleepiness and severe obstructive sleep apnea are associated with depression or its onset, which is even more risky. The likelihood of depression in men with sleep disorders and excessive daytime sleepiness is four times higher than in men who do not suffer from nocturnal sleep apnea.

Problems Thinking

It is shown that people with sleep apnea demonstrate significant changes in the brain functions. Perhaps this is the reason for frequent problems in thinking with sleep apnea, difficulty in remembering and making decisions. As a result of the research, it turned out that among people with symptoms of apnea, 45% had problems with thinking and memory. Moreover, elderly people suffering from the stop of breathing while sleeping often complain of memory troubles and dementia than those who sleep peacefully at night.


80% of men with sleep apnea have erectile dysfunction. These patients complain of a decrease in potency, absence of erection during sleep, and sort lasting erection.

Sleep apnea causes the reduced production of testosterone, because of the lack of oxygen. Oxygen starvation of tissues causes atherosclerosis of blood vessels, impairment of blood supply to all organs, including genitals. Hence, the more episodes of sleep apnea happen, the higher the risk of impotence is.

High Blood Pressure

High blood pressure is observed in 50% of patients with apnea. A sleep apnea syndrome is a main reason that causes secondary arterial hypertension. It is proved that patients suffering from obstructive sleep apnea, have no decrease in nighttime pressure (this should be normal). In some cases, night pressure indicators are even higher than daytime pressure! The significant decrease in blood pressure is observed in patients with sleep apnea 30 minutes after awakening, without taking medication. This indicates that a rise in pressure is facilitated by sleep violation.

Waking to Urinate

Apnea may be the main reason of nighttime urination, which disturbs some men suffering from prostatic hyperplasia. Treatment of this problem, according to experts, will prevent patients from getting up at night. Obstructive sleep apnea is one of the main causes of the increased urge to urinate at night, which is experienced by men with an enlarged prostate.


Daytime heartburn is a very common symptom, which is most often associated with eating, and which is common to many people. However, sometimes a burning sensation in upper abdomen can occur at night, it appears without any reason and leads to awakenings causing considerable discomfort. The syndrome of obstructive sleep apnea can be associated with numerous disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, in particular, with the appearance of heartburn.

Dry Mouth and Drooling

Two contradictory findings may both suggest sleep apnea: dry mouth and drooling. As the stop of breathing happens, a man opens the mouth, as the result, the mucous membrane is over dried. Also, except for the sensation of dryness and tightness in the mouth, there are such symptoms as: sore throat, burning of the tongue, redness, small puffiness.

Somewhat unexpectedly, drooling may suggest the same situation. When the mouse is open, the saliva is free to drip from the corners of the mouth. Breathing disorders while sleeping are very dangerous to health, and can even lead to death.

What Is Metabolism and Can We Really Change It?

What is fact and what is fiction about boosting your metabolism?

Metabolism is a complex process of converting calories from food into energy for our body’s needs. Many chemical reactions are involved in this process. They occur during digestion, physical activity, breathing and many other internal processes necessary to maintain our life.

The word “metabolism” is often used by dieters and fitness instructors in order to explain, why do we gain weight and how to avoid it. However, not everyone knows what metabolism actually is.

What is Metabolism

Metabolism is a process that takes place in any living being to sustain its life. Metabolism allows the cells to perform various functions, so our body can grow, heal itself and respond to the environment. We can divide all metabolic processes into two categories. Destructive processes are called catabolism, while constructive are called anabolism.

Nutrients that enter the body cannot be used immediately for its needs. For example, proteins from nuts and milk are completely different from proteins in our muscles and cannot replace each other. However, they consist of smaller building blocks, amino acids. Proteins of different kinds have a different sets of them.

Special enzymes in our body break down proteins contained in food into individual amino acids, so we can obtain blocks to build various cells. During this process energy is released, which can be measured in calories. Another example of catabolism is the breaking down of ordinary refined sugar into fructose and glucose.

However, it is not enough to break down proteins into amino acids. We need to create new proteins to build muscles and other cells. To construct new molecules from smaller components energy is required. This process of creating new molecules is called anabolism.

Where Does Fat Come From?

During nutrient breakdown, if more energy is produced than is required to create new cells in the body, an excess of energy occurs. When we are at rest, there is no need to break down and synthesize a lot of substances. But as soon as the body begins to move, all metabolic processes are accelerated and intensified. The need for energy and nutrients also increases.

But no matter how physically active a person is, an excess of calories can occur if we eat too much. A small part of it will be stored in muscles and liver as a spare energy source. The rest is accumulated in fat cells. Each 9 kcal of excess energy will be stored as 1 gram of fat in our body.

Here is a simple example: suppose you eat a sandwich and lie down on the couch. The body receives fats, proteins, carbohydrates and 140 kcal of energy. While lying down, the body uses about 50 kcal per hour to maintain its basic functions like breathing and blood circulation. The remaining 90 kcal will turn into10 gram of fat stored in your body. However, if you will go out on a walk instead of lying down, you will use all those calories in about an hour.

Metabolic Rate

We constantly need energy to breath, circulate blood and maintain chemical balance in the body. The number of calories we need to sustain those vital functions is called basal metabolic rate.

Our basal metabolic rate is fairly stable and can be calculated in several ways. The most reliable way is to get tested in a medical lab. You can calculate the value yourself using these formulas:

For man: (13.4 * weight/kg) + (4.8 * height/cm) – (5.7 * age) + 88.4

For women: (9.3 * weight/kg) + (3.1 * height/cm) – (4.3 * age) + 447.6

Total metabolic rate is a combination of fairly stable basal metabolic rate and other processes like physical activity that can change from day to day.

Why Is My Metabolism Slow?

Some people believe that they gain excess weight because their metabolism is slow. In fact, studies show that slow metabolism occurs only in a number of diseases, for example, a deficiency of the thyroid hormone. Most people with excess weight do not have such diseases, but an energy imbalance. That is, the body does not use all the energy produced from food, so it is stored in fat cells.

How Can I Change My Metabolism to Lose Weight?

It is obvious that physical movement of any kind, including daily activities like walking or cleaning, will increase your metabolic rate and help you burn calories. If you want to lose weight without significantly increasing physical activity, focus on a balanced diet.

There are lots of foods that will actually worsen your metabolism. First of all, you will have to give up white bread, fast-foods, sweet sodas and other products with a high glycemic index. Remember to drink enough water – it is necessary for digestion and other important metabolic processes.

Caffeine and various fat burners increase brain activity and accelerate metabolism indirectly. Note that taking such substances can cause negative side effects like increased blood pressure, excessive sweating and various sleep disorders.

Keep in mind these additional facts to understand metabolism:

  1. The higher the body weight, the more calories we need. However, muscles consume much more energy than fat cells. Therefore, a bodybuilder will spend more calories than his counterpart of the same weight with undeveloped muscles.
  2. Metabolism worsens with age because of hormonal imbalance and a sharp decrease in physical activity.
  3. In a men’s body, testosterone is actively involved in metabolism. This is a natural anabolic, which forces the body to spend energy on growing additional muscles. Since much energy is needed to support muscles, a men and a woman of the same height and weight spend an unequal amount of calories during same activities. Simply put, men spend more energy and can lose weight more quickly.

How to Avoid Fad Diets and Start Eating Healthy

Stop harming yourself with fad diets and find a natural way to live happy and healthy!

Fad diets are no good for you. Surely, they can result in rapid loss of weight, given you follow them strictly. However, bear in mind that fad diets can harm your health and self-esteem; being designed mainly to lose weight fad diets usually are unhealthy and unbalanced. In a long term, they may result in energy loss and health problems because of malnutrition.

Fad diets require you to change your normal eating patterns. They are difficult to follow because of rules, which can be very different from your common habits. Because of that, most people give up not achieving the desired result, and the weight they lost comes back in no time. Being disappointed they find a new diet, lose and gain weight again, soon finding themselves running in circles. It is surely frustrating.

So why follow a diet that cannot give a sustained result, harming your body and self-esteem? Give it up. Instead of worrying about the dress size, think about healthy eating, which allows you to look and feel great, both physically and emotionally.

#1 Choose Healthy Foods

How do you know which foods are good for you? The principle is simple – the more natural your food is, the better it is for your body. Choose less processed products with no chemical additives and preservatives.

Fruits and berries can satisfy your craving for sugar in a healthy way. Combine your favorites to make salads with homemade dressings or buy a high-speed blender to make smoothies.

Do not forget about fresh vegetables, which contain many essential nutrients. To preserve the most nutritional qualities, eat them raw or steam cook them. Be aware that creamy and cheesy sauces are high in calories and make you gain weight easily.

Choose whole grain pastry over baked goods made from white floor. White floor has little nutritional value and contain high amounts of starch that affects blood sugar. Avoid products with refined sugar; choose a raw apple over an apple pie.

Be sure to add fish to your diet, since omega-3 fatty acids are essential for our body. Buy lean meats and avoid processed ones like sausages, hot dogs, and bacon. The way of cooking also matters: baked foods are always healthier than fried.

Water is the best drink choice; add some lemon to give it a touch of flavor. Herbal and green teas, as well as coffee can be good for you, but avoid sugary sodas and store-bought juices.

#2 Analyze Your Habits

Making your life more healthy and happy means analyzing your habits and deciding which ones should be left behind for your own good. Changing old habits is not easy, so do not try to achieve too much in a short time. These questions just might give you a hint where to start:

  • Do you eat because of boredom, stress, or sadness?
  • Do you often snack without even thinking about it?
  • Do you often skip breakfast and overeat in the evening?
  • How often do you visit fast food restaurants?
  • Do you enjoy cooking at home?
  • Are there kinds of food that would be very difficult to give up?

#3 Stop the Unhealthy Snacking

Some people tend to eat because of stress, sadness or even excitement, not noticing that they actually overdoing with unhealthy and high-calorie food. Since this habit is difficult to get rid of, a good advice is not to keep snacks like chips, cookies and sweets at home. Replace them with healthier alternatives like berries, fruits, and low-calorie granola bars. You can even buy a bar of dark chocolate to satisfy your special cravings. The same works for those who eat in front of the TV by force of habit.

#4 Tips for Dining Out

If you have most of your meals at a restaurant, it is not easy to keep eating healthy. Stick to soups and salads; avoid deserts and sweet after-dinner drinks. As an option, order a glass of wine and a scoop of ice cream after the main meal. Some restaurants offer large portions that do not match your needs; share them with a friend or choose smaller portions. Fast food dining is the greatest enemy for healthy living, so try to avoid it at all costs.

#5 Not Passionate about Cooking?

Although cooking at home is the best way to start eating healthy, you just might hate cooking. There is no need to spend hours cooking every day; you can try buying prepared food from the stores that offer healthy meals. If you are tight on budget, pick some time on weekends, cook and freeze food, so you can warm it up later in the week.

Do not shop for groceries when you are hungry. While shopping, stay away from shelves with junk food, artificial cheese products and processed meats.

#6 Don’t Skip Meals

Breakfast is an essential that provides you with energy for the day. Always eat at leas a small breakfast early in the morning, for example, an egg, some oats or some yoghurt. Later in the morning you may a healthy snack such as nuts or raisins, which provide you with more energy.

In fact, every meal is important. Skipping essential meals like lunch or dinner, you may easily overeat later because of feeling hungry.

#7 Control Portion Size

Surprisingly, our stomach can hold only two cups of food without stretching. But because of its ability to stretch, we can eat considerably more food then we need for one meal! To avoid overeating, serve your meal on an individual plate. Dining in restaurants, ask for takeaway containers to take half of your meal home.

If you have some favorites you just cannot give up, you actually don’t have to. Simply take smaller portions of the same treats, like a normal sized cup of latte instead of a giant one. Limit unhealthy foods you like little by little, or try to find healthy alternatives for them.

It is only natural that changing habits takes a lot of time and effort. Instead of creating high expectations and blaming yourself for not being able to meet them, make little but persistent steps to your new healthy lifestyle. Remember, Rome wasn’t built in a day.

Digestion Of Carbohydrates

Digestion is the process of decomposition of food and macronutrients (protein, carbohydrates, fats) into small / basic units and their absorption and transport to target tissues. The aim of the digestion of carbohydrates are the simplest carbohydrates / sugar. that can be absorbed by the intestines and the blood is transferred to the city, where is then metabolized.

Chemical formula of carbohydrates

The original general chemical formula of carbohydrates is (CH2O) n. The relationship between hydrogen and oxygen is therefore 2:1. A newer definition of the group of carbohydrates includes substances for which this ratio is different, but have the characteristics of the “real” carbs. In addition, the formula may also include nitrogen and sulfur.

Division of Carbohydrate

Carbohydrates can be divided into monosaccharides, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides.

Or monosaccharides. divided into simple sugars hexoses (glucose, fructose, galactose, mannose) and pentose (ribose, ribulose, etc..). The intestine can absorb only monosaccharides.

Among oligosaccharides, consisting of 2 to 10 units of simple sugars, including:maltose, which are composed of two molecules of glucose; or sucrose. table sugar is composed of molecules of glucose and fructose; or lactose. milk sugar, which is composed of molecules of glucose and galactose. To digest lactose enzyme lactase needed only that many people lack, this condition is called lactose intolerance. trisaccharide raffinose and melezitose.

Polysaccharides can be divided into digestible (glycogen, starch, etc..) Partially digestible and indigestible. Indigestible polysaccharides or. fiber further divided into insoluble and soluble (hemicellulose, pectin, etc.).

Digestion of carbohydrates

Digestion of carbohydrates begins immediately after eating – in the mouth. By biting the mechanical fragmentation occurs, the enzyme alpha amylase (AA) and proceed with its chemical action – chemical digestion. AA cleaves starch and other polysaccharides into smaller units. In the mouth, food is impregnated with saliva (and hence the AA), so that digestion of carbohydrates takes place in all the way to the stomach, where stomach acid neutralizes the operation of AA.

The digestion then continues in the small intestine where pancreatic AA arrived carbohydrates to cleave even tighter: maltose, maltotriozo, short oligosaccharides, etc..

The last part of the cleavage of di-and oligosaccharides are enforced under the influence of surface enzymes (oligosaccharide and disaharidaze) secreted by cells lining the small intestine – enterocytes. The resulting monosaccharides are then absorbed through enterocito blood.

Di-, oligo-and polysaccharides by alpha-amylase and the small bowel surface enzymes have not been able to break down, they cannot absorb. These saccharides may be used by bacteria that are located on the lower part of the small intestine further, because they have many more types of suitable enzymes – saccharide as a man.

Monosaccharides (mainly as glucose) and then travel through the blood to target tissues, but cannot enter cells by diffusion, since they would have to move against the concentration gradient and therefore to pass through the cell walls need conveyors. These are different for different tissues (6 different transporters: GLUT-1 (Glucose Transporter Briefings type 4), GLUT-2, GLUT-3, GLUT-4, GLUT-5, SGLT-1), all – except for muscle transporter , heart and adipose (GLUT-4) – are independent of the hormone insulin (which means that glucose can cross the cell wall without the presence of insulin).

After eating, the blood glucose is therefore increased, which causes increased secretion of the hormone insulin. Insulin binds to the receptor wall of the target cells (skeletal and cardiac muscle cells and fat cells), which in a cell with a range of reactions that lead to vesicle transport by GLUT-4 transporters, which are stored within the cell to the surface of the cell wall. Vesicles then fuse with the wall, conveyor belts are activated and glucose can cross the cell wall. With the fall of blood glucose reduces the secretion of insulin, insulin receptors are deactivated and transporters are re-stored in vesicles

Glutamine And Digestion of OH During and After Exercise

Glutamine is one of the most abundant / widespread amino acid in the body and plays a key metabolic role in many important biological processes.

Glutamine provides optimal functioning of the immune and nervous systems, helps maintain the acid-base balance and normal blood acidity, helps in establishing and maintaining the integrity of the digestive tract, a positive effect on nitrogen balance and prevent muscle breakdown (muscle catabolism) and helps to regenerate the body, stimulates secretion of growth hormone and the formation of glutathione, the body’s own antioxidant fittest, etc..

The amount of glutamine in skeletal muscle may be due to different types of metabolic stress extremely reduced, resulting in some glutamine characterized as conditionally essential amino acid.

Does the availability of glutamine during and after exercise is limited, as yet not fully understood. One of the reasons for this are themselves, or research differences in their designs (length of study, the intensity and length of training, studying the concentration of glutamine in the blood or muscle, etc..). Thus, for example some studies have shown that the amount of glutamine in the circulation during exercise is increased, others to decrease. Previous research has also shown that the net loss of glutamine from muscle is greater during exercise than at rest and that the availability of glutamine significantly decreased after exercise, especially in a very intensive training.

Little is known about the impact of the availability of glutamine metabolism during and after exercise. Recent studies indicate that glutamine has an important role in maintaining homeostasis of blood sugar, since the carbon in glutamine entry into the Krebs cycle and thus contribute to gluconeogenesis (glucose production). Moreover, glutamine also promotes consumption of whole body glucose uptake and glucose loaded / active muscles.

It is known that in order to ensure sufficient energy during exercise increases glucose uptake in the loaded and unencumbered tissues, liver – because of increased need for glucose – increased production of it. After exercise the uptake of glucose remains in the tissues increased for some time, but also increased sensitivity to insulin, which promotes the regeneration of glycogen in skeletal muscle and liver.

Treatment Of Hypertension

The main purpose of antihypertensive therapy is to reduce morbidity and mortality due to cardiovascular and kidney diseases. Successful control of hypertension is not simply to achieve normal blood pressure, but to eliminate or control any other risk factors which can affect, and appropriate treatment of associated clinical disease.

New European guidelines for the treatment of arterial hypertension in 2003  guidelines were adopted that year, defined as achieving a target blood pressure of 140/90 mmHg or below low blood pressure, which is tolerated. In diabetes and kidney disease recommend lowering blood pressure below 130/80 mmHg in patients with proteinuria greater than 1 g / 24 hours, and below 125/75 mmHg.

Pharmacology of anti-hypertensive drugs:

Thiazide diuretics: inhibit cotransport sodium and chlorine from the distal lumen of the initial work of twisted channel. As more and more remains of sodium and chlorine remains the more water is excreted in the urine. The volume of extracellular fluid and plasma is reduced. Followed by decreased venous return and reducing cardiac output. Blood pressure is lowered, peripheral vascular resistance increases. Later, self-regulation of extracellular fluid volume increased peripheral vascular resistance is reduced, blood pressure, but continues to be reduced. Thus, at baseline low blood pressure due to dehydration, and subsequently to reduce peripheral resistance. Side effects: hypokalemia, hypomagnesaemia, hyperuricaemia, but rarely hypercalcaemia.

Beta blockers: are among the drugs that block the renin-angiotensin system, while inhibiting the activity of the sympathetic nervous system. Reduced blood pressure by reducing cardiac output, renin secretion, central sympathetic activity and peripheral vascular resistance. Beta-blockers differ depending on the solubility in fats. Those that are soluble and is rapidly metabolized in the liver, so that their effect is shorter. Slightly soluble in fats are excreted through the kidneys slowly and therefore their operation is prolonged.

ACE inhibitors: inhibit an important enzyme in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system.

Calcium channel antagonists: reduce the entry of calcium into cells of conducting system, and therefore its concentration in them is reduced. Smooth-muscle cells in the walls of arteries are therefore less reduced, which caused the spread of blood vessels. Resistance is lower in the artery, blood pressure decreases. Do not disturb the metabolism of sugar, fat and cause hypokalemia.

Sleep Better With Regular Bedtime Schedule

To achieve a truly good night sleep, you need to synchronize again your organism’s sleep-wake cycle and your circadian rhythm. With a regular sleep schedule, meaning to go to bed and wake up at the same time on a daily basis, you can have a more energized and refreshing sleep than if you sleep the same amount of time but at different intervals. The same principle applies even if you only manage to modify your regular sleeping schedule with an hour or two. What is really important is to remain consistent.

Establish a regular bedtime. It is important to go to bed every night at the same time. It is best to set a time when you generally feel tired or even sleepy. This bedtime routine should not be broken on weekends, when you might consider staying up late. In case you need to modify your bedtime, it is preferable to make the changes in small increments, for instance 10-15 minutes earlier or later every day.

Get out of bed at the same time every morning. If you are getting sufficient sleep, you should be able to easily wake up without any alarm. If you need to use an alarm to wake up on time, you should consider setting an earlier bedtime. It is preferable to stay with your normal wake up time on weekends as well.

Nap to compensate the lost sleep. If you have to compensate a couple of lost hours, it is better to take a daytime nap than opting for sleeping late. Thus, you will recover the lost hours and will not interfere with your natural sleep-wake cycle that would cause insomnia even for days.

Take a nap, but do it smart. Even if a nap can boosts your energy level, it can still make insomnia a lot worse. If you are experiencing such sleeping problems, it is better not to take a nap during the day. However, if you need a nap, take in the early afternoon and limit it to half an hour.

Get rid of after-dinner sleepiness. If you feel sleepy long before your usual bedtime, just get off the couch and start an activity that would moderately stimulate you, for instance, preparing clothes for the next day, calling a friend or relative, or washing the dishes. If you fall asleep on the couch for a certain period of time, you might wake up sometimes in the night, without being able to easily go back to sleep.

Find out your most favorable sleep schedule

First, locate a time frame (a couple of weeks at most) when you can freely experiment with various sleep and wake times. In the evening, go to sleep at the same time and sleep until you wake up ion your own, without using any alarm. If your sleep is disturbed, it might set you back for weeks. As you go to sleep and wake up at the same time, it is just a matter of time, till you discover your optimum sleep schedule.