Digestion Of Carbohydrates

Digestion is the process of decomposition of food and macronutrients (protein, carbohydrates, fats) into small / basic units and their absorption and transport to target tissues. The aim of the digestion of carbohydrates are the simplest carbohydrates / sugar. that can be absorbed by the intestines and the blood is transferred to the city, where is then metabolized.

Chemical formula of carbohydrates

The original general chemical formula of carbohydrates is (CH2O) n. The relationship between hydrogen and oxygen is therefore 2:1. A newer definition of the group of carbohydrates includes substances for which this ratio is different, but have the characteristics of the “real” carbs. In addition, the formula may also include nitrogen and sulfur.

Division of Carbohydrate

Carbohydrates can be divided into monosaccharides, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides.

Or monosaccharides. divided into simple sugars hexoses (glucose, fructose, galactose, mannose) and pentose (ribose, ribulose, etc..). The intestine can absorb only monosaccharides.

Among oligosaccharides, consisting of 2 to 10 units of simple sugars, including:maltose, which are composed of two molecules of glucose; or sucrose. table sugar is composed of molecules of glucose and fructose; or lactose. milk sugar, which is composed of molecules of glucose and galactose. To digest lactose enzyme lactase needed only that many people lack, this condition is called lactose intolerance. trisaccharide raffinose and melezitose.

Polysaccharides can be divided into digestible (glycogen, starch, etc..) Partially digestible and indigestible. Indigestible polysaccharides or. fiber further divided into insoluble and soluble (hemicellulose, pectin, etc.).

Digestion of carbohydrates

Digestion of carbohydrates begins immediately after eating – in the mouth. By biting the mechanical fragmentation occurs, the enzyme alpha amylase (AA) and proceed with its chemical action – chemical digestion. AA cleaves starch and other polysaccharides into smaller units. In the mouth, food is impregnated with saliva (and hence the AA), so that digestion of carbohydrates takes place in all the way to the stomach, where stomach acid neutralizes the operation of AA.

The digestion then continues in the small intestine where pancreatic AA arrived carbohydrates to cleave even tighter: maltose, maltotriozo, short oligosaccharides, etc..

The last part of the cleavage of di-and oligosaccharides are enforced under the influence of surface enzymes (oligosaccharide and disaharidaze) secreted by cells lining the small intestine – enterocytes. The resulting monosaccharides are then absorbed through enterocito blood.

Di-, oligo-and polysaccharides by alpha-amylase and the small bowel surface enzymes have not been able to break down, they cannot absorb. These saccharides may be used by bacteria that are located on the lower part of the small intestine further, because they have many more types of suitable enzymes – saccharide as a man.

Monosaccharides (mainly as glucose) and then travel through the blood to target tissues, but cannot enter cells by diffusion, since they would have to move against the concentration gradient and therefore to pass through the cell walls need conveyors. These are different for different tissues (6 different transporters: GLUT-1 (Glucose Transporter Briefings type 4), GLUT-2, GLUT-3, GLUT-4, GLUT-5, SGLT-1), all – except for muscle transporter , heart and adipose (GLUT-4) – are independent of the hormone insulin (which means that glucose can cross the cell wall without the presence of insulin).

After eating, the blood glucose is therefore increased, which causes increased secretion of the hormone insulin. Insulin binds to the receptor wall of the target cells (skeletal and cardiac muscle cells and fat cells), which in a cell with a range of reactions that lead to vesicle transport by GLUT-4 transporters, which are stored within the cell to the surface of the cell wall. Vesicles then fuse with the wall, conveyor belts are activated and glucose can cross the cell wall. With the fall of blood glucose reduces the secretion of insulin, insulin receptors are deactivated and transporters are re-stored in vesicles

Glutamine And Digestion of OH During and After Exercise

Glutamine is one of the most abundant / widespread amino acid in the body and plays a key metabolic role in many important biological processes.

Glutamine provides optimal functioning of the immune and nervous systems, helps maintain the acid-base balance and normal blood acidity, helps in establishing and maintaining the integrity of the digestive tract, a positive effect on nitrogen balance and prevent muscle breakdown (muscle catabolism) and helps to regenerate the body, stimulates secretion of growth hormone and the formation of glutathione, the body’s own antioxidant fittest, etc..

The amount of glutamine in skeletal muscle may be due to different types of metabolic stress extremely reduced, resulting in some glutamine characterized as conditionally essential amino acid.

Does the availability of glutamine during and after exercise is limited, as yet not fully understood. One of the reasons for this are themselves, or research differences in their designs (length of study, the intensity and length of training, studying the concentration of glutamine in the blood or muscle, etc..). Thus, for example some studies have shown that the amount of glutamine in the circulation during exercise is increased, others to decrease. Previous research has also shown that the net loss of glutamine from muscle is greater during exercise than at rest and that the availability of glutamine significantly decreased after exercise, especially in a very intensive training.

Little is known about the impact of the availability of glutamine metabolism during and after exercise. Recent studies indicate that glutamine has an important role in maintaining homeostasis of blood sugar, since the carbon in glutamine entry into the Krebs cycle and thus contribute to gluconeogenesis (glucose production). Moreover, glutamine also promotes consumption of whole body glucose uptake and glucose loaded / active muscles.

It is known that in order to ensure sufficient energy during exercise increases glucose uptake in the loaded and unencumbered tissues, liver – because of increased need for glucose – increased production of it. After exercise the uptake of glucose remains in the tissues increased for some time, but also increased sensitivity to insulin, which promotes the regeneration of glycogen in skeletal muscle and liver.

Treatment Of Hypertension

The main purpose of antihypertensive therapy is to reduce morbidity and mortality due to cardiovascular and kidney diseases. Successful control of hypertension is not simply to achieve normal blood pressure, but to eliminate or control any other risk factors which can affect, and appropriate treatment of associated clinical disease.

New European guidelines for the treatment of arterial hypertension in 2003  guidelines were adopted that year, defined as achieving a target blood pressure of 140/90 mmHg or below low blood pressure, which is tolerated. In diabetes and kidney disease recommend lowering blood pressure below 130/80 mmHg in patients with proteinuria greater than 1 g / 24 hours, and below 125/75 mmHg.

Pharmacology of anti-hypertensive drugs:

Thiazide diuretics: inhibit cotransport sodium and chlorine from the distal lumen of the initial work of twisted channel. As more and more remains of sodium and chlorine remains the more water is excreted in the urine. The volume of extracellular fluid and plasma is reduced. Followed by decreased venous return and reducing cardiac output. Blood pressure is lowered, peripheral vascular resistance increases. Later, self-regulation of extracellular fluid volume increased peripheral vascular resistance is reduced, blood pressure, but continues to be reduced. Thus, at baseline low blood pressure due to dehydration, and subsequently to reduce peripheral resistance. Side effects: hypokalemia, hypomagnesaemia, hyperuricaemia, but rarely hypercalcaemia.

Beta blockers: are among the drugs that block the renin-angiotensin system, while inhibiting the activity of the sympathetic nervous system. Reduced blood pressure by reducing cardiac output, renin secretion, central sympathetic activity and peripheral vascular resistance. Beta-blockers differ depending on the solubility in fats. Those that are soluble and is rapidly metabolized in the liver, so that their effect is shorter. Slightly soluble in fats are excreted through the kidneys slowly and therefore their operation is prolonged.

ACE inhibitors: inhibit an important enzyme in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system.

Calcium channel antagonists: reduce the entry of calcium into cells of conducting system, and therefore its concentration in them is reduced. Smooth-muscle cells in the walls of arteries are therefore less reduced, which caused the spread of blood vessels. Resistance is lower in the artery, blood pressure decreases. Do not disturb the metabolism of sugar, fat and cause hypokalemia.

Sleep Better With Regular Bedtime Schedule

To achieve a truly good night sleep, you need to synchronize again your organism’s sleep-wake cycle and your circadian rhythm. With a regular sleep schedule, meaning to go to bed and wake up at the same time on a daily basis, you can have a more energized and refreshing sleep than if you sleep the same amount of time but at different intervals. The same principle applies even if you only manage to modify your regular sleeping schedule with an hour or two. What is really important is to remain consistent.

Establish a regular bedtime. It is important to go to bed every night at the same time. It is best to set a time when you generally feel tired or even sleepy. This bedtime routine should not be broken on weekends, when you might consider staying up late. In case you need to modify your bedtime, it is preferable to make the changes in small increments, for instance 10-15 minutes earlier or later every day.

Get out of bed at the same time every morning. If you are getting sufficient sleep, you should be able to easily wake up without any alarm. If you need to use an alarm to wake up on time, you should consider setting an earlier bedtime. It is preferable to stay with your normal wake up time on weekends as well.

Nap to compensate the lost sleep. If you have to compensate a couple of lost hours, it is better to take a daytime nap than opting for sleeping late. Thus, you will recover the lost hours and will not interfere with your natural sleep-wake cycle that would cause insomnia even for days.

Take a nap, but do it smart. Even if a nap can boosts your energy level, it can still make insomnia a lot worse. If you are experiencing such sleeping problems, it is better not to take a nap during the day. However, if you need a nap, take in the early afternoon and limit it to half an hour.

Get rid of after-dinner sleepiness. If you feel sleepy long before your usual bedtime, just get off the couch and start an activity that would moderately stimulate you, for instance, preparing clothes for the next day, calling a friend or relative, or washing the dishes. If you fall asleep on the couch for a certain period of time, you might wake up sometimes in the night, without being able to easily go back to sleep.

Find out your most favorable sleep schedule

First, locate a time frame (a couple of weeks at most) when you can freely experiment with various sleep and wake times. In the evening, go to sleep at the same time and sleep until you wake up ion your own, without using any alarm. If your sleep is disturbed, it might set you back for weeks. As you go to sleep and wake up at the same time, it is just a matter of time, till you discover your optimum sleep schedule.

Psychophysiological Insomnia

Psychophysiological insomnia and insomnia is the most common acquired form of insomnia. These patients have a feeling that poor sleep, which can be objectively confirmed by polysomnography recording (method for determining the stages of sleep; include at least three biological measurements: measurements of brain electrical activity-EEG, detection of eye movements, EOG, measuring the electrical activity of muscles under the chin-EMG) . Psychophysiological insomnia is most commonly in the chronic form (which explains why events in patients who were present at the beginning of the disease had long since forgotten). Usually patients are very concerned about their insomnia, slow to develop a vicious circle: when trying to sleep more and are more upset by this and thus reduce the opportunity to really fall asleep. Sleeping is slowly deteriorating until the patient’s primary and only thought of it becomes a desire to be a good sleep, which prevents this really, happened.

You can usually fall asleep in other situations when you do not think about how they slept, for example: watching TV, reading, driving … Even in an unfamiliar environment, for example: in a hotel on vacation, in the laboratory, sleep better than at home.

Most insomnia is a chronic condition, but there may be brief periods of good sleep, for example: during the leave. Various internal and external causes that lead to insomnia, aggravated by other factors, such as depression, pain, work in shifts, inadequate sleep environment, …

The frequency of disease among populations in different studies varies. In sleeping centers 15% of all people diagnosed with insomnia receive Psychophysiological insomnia. Disorder in childhood and adolescence is rare, usually first appears in smaller adults (20-30 years) and slowly increases until middle age. Repeatedly complain of insomnia women than men.

The clearance recording polysomnography these subjects found the parameters of insomnia, such as prolonged sleep latency, increased wakefulness during sleep, reduced sleep efficiency. A common phenomenon is the opposite of the first night: Patients in the sleeping laboratory sleep better than at home.

Obesity Due To Lack Of Sleep

Today, on average, we sleep less than we burn a few decades ago, while (as in most developed countries in our country) increasing body mass index of the population. These two phenomena linked to each other? Is it really possible that breeds because lack of sleep?

Obesity in developed countries is fast becoming one of the leading causes of death – mostly indirectly, of course: obesity is the increased risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The problem with the fight against obesity is that the complex interweaving of causes that lead to obesity, there is no miracle cure, which would eliminate this scourge.

Many believe that to when and how we are hungry, what we eat and the extent to expend energy, affect our sleeping habits (more on the importance of sleep Sleep in the article). Indisputable fact that today, much less sleep as we sleep sometimes. The pressures on our personal time and its allocation are evil: mostly work for longer than we did, the more time devoted to self, family, increasing the amount of time we spend watching TV or the computer. All this affects the amount of time you can spend the night. Some research suggests that in developed countries, the average length of sleep in the last 50 years shorter for the whole two hours a night!

This topic has been carried out more research – both among adults than among adolescents and children, both in America and in Europe and Japan. In all studies have shown that there is a positive correlation between lack of sleep and obesity.

Researchers from Laval University in Quebec has been studied sleep habits of children 422 (211 boys and 211 girls) mean age of six and a half years. Measured as their height, weight and waist circumference, data on sleeping habits were obtained through interviews with parents. The results were unequivocal: he was too fat 1 in 5 boys and 1 in 4 girls. For children who slept an average of 10.5 to 11.5 hours a day, was likely to be obese, 40% higher than in children who slept 12 to 13 hours a day.

Similar findings have come in several studies in adults. The long continued research on health and nutrition of Americans (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey), for example, came to the following conclusions:in people who sleep less than seven hours a day, it appeared that the likelihood that obese at the very beginning of the study were higher than among those who sleep more;in people who sleep five hours a day, the likelihood of obesity was 73% higher than in those who slept 7 to 9 hours. For those who sleep six hours, the likelihood was 27% higher.

Why lack of sleep increases the chances of obesity?

Today the link between lack of sleep and obesity is no longer a complete mystery. It is known that sleep deprivation affects the secretion of two important, the hormones that regulate appetite: leptin and ghrelina.

Leptin secreted by fat cells, which reported on the status of fat stores. Leptin reduces appetite and stimulates metabolism. Ghrelin, secreted by specialized cells lining the stomach, but – quite the opposite – increases appetite. Low levels of leptin and high levels ghrelina means that the body needs energy, that is a signal for hunger.

That’s exactly what happens when lack of sleep. secretion of leptin is reduced, but increased secretion ghrelina, the result is:increased appetite (due to low levels of leptin and a too high level ghrelina) andslower metabolism (metabolism) (due to low levels of leptin).

The fact that we live in a society where the (energy-rich) foods most at your fingertips, it means only consume more food – not necessarily the actual energy needs.

Sleepless eat more:because our body with all the signals are telling that we are hungry;because we were exhausted and we seem to need more energy (in fact, take more rest!)because in insomnia be emotionally empty and looking for comfort food …

One explanation for why this happens is that it is an evolutionary adaptation: a man has got used to store energy in fat stores during the summer when nights are short and when there is plenty of food, so that in winter, when nights are long , food is in abundance, can also survive on their own (fatty) energy reserves.

How much would you need to sleep?

Despite the fact that the results of several studies on the connection between lack of sleep and obesity-match, but the scientific evidence on how much sleep should a man have to afford to avoid the dangers of sleep deprivation, no.

But from the findings of some studies suggest that the average man should sleep at least 8 hours a day. Anything less than 7 hours of sleep a day, is seriously tinkering with the physical and mental health. Lack of sleep can cause many inconveniences, such as problems with memory and concentration, chronic pain, impaired reflexes, difficulty in managing emotions, irritability, a weakened immune system, but can also lead us to obesity.

Of course there are people who sleep a little, but they do not have any problems with obesity. Usually they are quite hyperactive people who, due to the small number of sleeping hours in fact do not suffer, but in those few hours of sleep as needed, CWG own. The vast majority of us should ever do anything more for himself: to recognize that sleep is a waste of time and extended for at least an hour. Each extra hour of sleep counts!

Creatine And Osteoarthritis

Due to age, injury, illness, increased physical load and some other factors could lead to osteoarthritis, degenerative joint disease characterized by progressive destruction of normal articular cartilage and the cartilage of bone tissue. The main symptoms of osteoarthritis are pain in the affected joints, worsening of motion, joint swelling, ultimately can lead to anatomical deformation of the joints (characterized by thickening of the conclusions of the fingers).

Treatment of osteoarthritis includes the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, paracetamol, local injections of corticosteroids, hyaluronic acid, etc.., Surgical replacement of joints, in some cases, appropriate implantation of autologous chondrocytes also (newer procedure for reconstruction of articular cartilage).

To relieve the symptoms of osteoarthritis are used various thermal therapeutic procedures (eg cold and hot compresses), low intensity physical activity, various relaxation techniques and supports, as complementary therapy but may also be useful supplements of omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin B9 and B12, selenium , bromelain, hydrolysed collagen, chondroitin and glucosamine. A recent survey was published in a professional journal Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, showed that it can alleviate symptoms of osteoarthritis also effective creatine, the body’s own substance, which is involved in anaerobic ATP-PCR system,  to provide power for the muscle and nerve cells.

Creatine

Most of the more than 200 studies, which have until now dealt with the use of the additive effects of creatine on physical performance, has proven to be the only significant effect on the athlete’s capacity, which has the practical experience and millions of users.

The increased amount of creatine in muscle tissue, thus allowing greater flow of energy for high-intensitywork, regeneration of high-intensity exercise, the series can be faster, so the athlete can handle more work per unit time, through the activation of these satellite cell creatine allows muscle cell hypertrophy, etc.. Recent research also suggests that the consumption of creatine increases the local production of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) during training with weights, which also affects the more strained muscle hypertrophy.

Creatine is sometimes also used as part of the treatment of various diseases (muscular dystrophy, Alzheimer’s disease), has a positive effect on the sensitivity of body cells to the hormone insulin, which can benefit diabetics, improves cognitive function and may reduce homocysteine ​​levels, which would be an important factor the risk of cardiovascular disease.

Creatine and osteoarthritis

The above study on the effects of creatine use on symptoms of osteoarthritis involving 26 women with knee osteoarthritis. The study lasted 12 weeks, women were divided into two groups (each 13). Both groups were carried out under professional supervision to train with weight. (the ejection of the knee on the bench, leg thrust and squat), as well as the first group received a supplement of creatine (the first week after the 20 g daily, then 5 g / day) and the other placebo.

The survey produced the following results: Functionality has been improved significantly only in patients who took creatine. Stiffness decreased only in patients who took creatine. Only women, who were taking creatine, have improved the quality of life indicators and the amount of lean mass of legs.

In both groups, it is important to reduce pain in the knees. Among the groups there was no difference in yield strength.

Research has already long list of positive effects of creatine added another option, but once again confirmed that, for people with osteoarthritis as exercise with weight. only useful and can contribute significantly to alleviating the symptoms, especially pain.

How Can We Reduce Cholesterol In The Blood

Adequate nutrition

Healthy food should contain a minimum of saturated fatty acids (which are butter, bacon, lard, etc..) and salt, and as many vegetables, fruits and water-soluble fiber. Such foods reduce the fat in the blood, thereby protecting blood vessels. Should eat at least four times a day. Breakfast is one of the most important meal and it really should not let go. Last meal eat at least two hours before bedtime. Avoid snacks.

Fats are not banned, but aware of the need to be highly calorific and therefore must be consumed only in limited quantities, especially when taking the diet also reduced body weight.

In moderate quantities we consume polyunsaturated fatty acidsalso reduce the cholesterol in the blood. These fatty acids are vegetable oils (sunflower, corn, rapeseed) and in food products from these seeds. Very useful are the fish (sardine, tuna, etc..) Rich in omega 3 fatty acids These acids act on the heart protective. You should eat fish at least once a week.

Helpful monounsaturated fatty acidsin olive oil and avocados. Many experts recommend it in moderation, reducing cholesterol in the blood.

Harmful as saturated fatty acids contained in meat and meat products, cheese and whole milk, and, trans-fatty acids in margarine, because they increase the content of cholesterol and coronary risk. These food products should be avoided.

It is desirable to eat foods containing more fiber (cereals, vegetables, fruits, legumes and various nuts). These foods reduce cholesterol and LDL cholesterol more effectively than this can be achieved by limiting intake of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol. In addition, they provide a feeling of satiety and help regulate body weight. Soluble fiber (eg psyllium pods, guar gum, oat bran – 3g/day) effectively reduce cholesterol in the blood.

Green tea reduces the amount of harmful cholesterol and increasing beneficial HDL cholesterol content. Believe that catechin, a substance that inhibits the absorption of cholesterol in the intestines and promote its excretion from the body. Green tea contains antioxidant substances that would prevent the formation of cancer.

Numerous studies have shown that daily consumption of soy (20 to 40 g) instead of animal protein can reduce cholesterol.

The flowers and fruits of white hawthorn in folk medicine and homeopathy is very popular for the prevention of heart attacks, chest pain, arrhythmias and heart failure. Research has shown that the tincture of white hawthorn fruits effectively reduce cholesterol. Experiments have shown that in animals tincture cholesterol inhibits the formation of the liver in humans, this operation has not yet been confirmed.

Many studies have shown that garlic reduces cholesterol in the blood. It is not clear how much you need to eat and whether there is a difference in performance when consumed fresh garlic or garlic preparations.

Omega 3 Healthy Fats For Healthy Life

People should increase the general intake of beneficial omega 3 fatty acids, as they are required for such body functions as building cell membranes in the brain or managing blood clotting. Scientists are still learning about the numerous advantages of omega-3, but right now this healthy fatty acid can positively influence: Depressions. Omega-3 fatty acid DHA ameliorates the symptoms of depression possibly because it stimulates the brain’s gray matter. Liver cancer. It can be an efficient therapy for the prevention but also for the treatment of liver cancers in humans. Dementia. The consumption of fatty fish, rich in omega-3, decreases the chances of developing various brain lesions which could lead to dementia and memory loss.

Cardiovascular disease. Several studies have revealed that omega-3 fatty acids lowers the risks of arrhythmias, the growth rate of atherosclerotic plaque and the levels of triglyceride.

Types of omega-3 fatty acids

The three main types of omega-3 fatty acids are docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA). Foods that are rich in omega-3 are such fatty fish as herring, salmon, anchovies, mackerel or sardines, and certain cold-water fish oil supplements. Other great sources are lake trout and canned (albacore) tuna, but it depends on the way the fish were raised and eventually processed.

There are a lot of discussions about getting omega-3 from foods containing ALA fatty acids, as it is the most widespread type of omega-3 in American diets and it is found in large amounts in walnuts, flax seeds and flax seed oil. Although your organism could change ALA into DHA and EPA, there are some people who are unable to do so. It is the main reason why you should include in your diet fatty fish oil supplements or fatty fish. However, if do not consume fish oil or fish, it is still a food thing to get only ALA as you will benefit from higher cardiovascular protection.

There are people who refuse to eat seafood as they have concerns over mercury and other potential toxins in the fish. However, experts in general claim that the overall advantages of eating a couple of servings of cold water fatty fish per week well outweigh the possible risks.

Going with the best omega-3 supplements

Keep in mind a couple of things when selecting an omega-3 supplement:
–          One capsule of 500 mg per day is sufficient. A higher amount is not associated with increased benefits, but it can affect your health. The general recommendation is a daily intake of 1-3 grams of DHA and EPA. In the existence of some medical conditions, a higher amount of omega-3 might be useful, but it should be prescribed by a medical doctor.
–          Go with molecularly distilled, pharmaceutical grade and mercury-free supplements. Check for the supplements to include EPA and DHA as well. Although it might be harder to find, but supplements containing a higher amount of EPA is preferred. An ideal ratio would be 3:2 (EPA: DHA).
–          Always check the expiration date of the supplement!

The omega-6 to omega-3 ratio

Omega-6 and omega-3 fats are equally vital fats (the body cannot produce it and we have to get these fats from the foods we consume). The right balance of them is of great importance for various several reasons. For instance, omega-6 fats are of great help in promoting healing and avoiding infections, while omega-3 fats fight inflammations and deactivates the inflammatory response when it is nit needed anymore.

In our modern days, the proper ratio between omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids has suffered major changes in the western diet. Most frequently, people eat just too much omega-6 fatty acids and insufficient omega-3 fatty acids. The right ratio is the most vital elements that can lower the risks of depression, inflammatory conditions, cancer and heart disease.

How to balance the intake of omega fats:
–          Lower the consumption of dairy products and meats;
–          Stay away from such vegetable oils as safflower and corn oil;
–          Eat more omega-3 rich foods, including wild caught cold water fish as salmon and foods as walnuts and flax seed oil.

What Is And Importance Of Glycemic Index

Glycemic index is a number (usually between 0 and 100), which foods are classified according to how the ingestion of certain foods affect your blood sugar to rise compared to the reference food, which is determined to have a glycemic index of 100th Usually the food is chosen for the reference glucose solution. The higher the glycemic index is the higher will increase blood sugar.

Previous measurements of glycemic index foods have revealed interesting and – to many nutritional experts – a surprising fact: the prediction that all simple sugars and the foods that contain sugars, such as a higher glycemic index foods containing complex carbohydrates, is WRONG! In practice this means for example that the potatoes (starch, which contains a complex carbohydrate) is more than twice as high glycemic index such as Apple and even higher glycemic index than table sugar. The same is true for white bread, popcorn, watermelon, etc..

Importance of glycemic index

Carbohydrates are the primary source of power for the body. After ingestion of the carbohydrates in the diet first digested to simple sugars and then absorbed into the bloodstream, leading to an increase in blood sugar. Functioning of the body is the best, if blood sugar levels relatively constant, it is therefore not a significant variation. If the blood sugar level drops significantly, we feel no energy and become hungry. If the blood sugar level suddenly increased, however, the pancreas increases insulin secretion. Insulin lowers the amount of sugar in the blood, in addition, excess sugar is transformed into triglycerides, which are then stored in fat cells, which are bred.

The bigger and faster when the rise in blood sugar, more insulin is released, followed by a larger transformation in triglycerides and a rapid drop in blood sugar. And the fastest rise in sugar causing foods with high glycemic index.

Eating foods with low glycemic index, therefore, prevents fluctuations in blood sugar and thus insulin, as a result, fluctuations in welfare and an important mechanism for the accumulation of excess body fat.

At this point we have noted that the strong rise in blood sugar is not only responsible but the glycemic index has an important role in food consumption. Glycemic index in combination with carbohydrate intake gives you glycemic load. In practice this means that a rise in blood sugar more if we have eaten 200g of potato, pasta or 50g of chocolate, as if you could only afford a piece of chocolate. So you can keep your blood sugar under control by limiting the consumption of carbohydrates or by eating carbohydrates with low glycemic index.

Glycemic load may be calculated using the formula:

GO = GI/100 x amount of carbohydrates