Glutamine is one of the most abundant / widespread amino acid in the body and plays a key metabolic role in many important biological processes.
Glutamine provides optimal functioning of the immune and nervous systems, helps maintain the acid-base balance and normal blood acidity, helps in establishing and maintaining the integrity of the digestive tract, a positive effect on nitrogen balance and prevent muscle breakdown (muscle catabolism) and helps to regenerate the body, stimulates secretion of growth hormone and the formation of glutathione, the body’s own antioxidant fittest, etc..
The amount of glutamine in skeletal muscle may be due to different types of metabolic stress extremely reduced, resulting in some glutamine characterized as conditionally essential amino acid.
Does the availability of glutamine during and after exercise is limited, as yet not fully understood. One of the reasons for this are themselves, or research differences in their designs (length of study, the intensity and length of training, studying the concentration of glutamine in the blood or muscle, etc..). Thus, for example some studies have shown that the amount of glutamine in the circulation during exercise is increased, others to decrease. Previous research has also shown that the net loss of glutamine from muscle is greater during exercise than at rest and that the availability of glutamine significantly decreased after exercise, especially in a very intensive training.
Little is known about the impact of the availability of glutamine metabolism during and after exercise. Recent studies indicate that glutamine has an important role in maintaining homeostasis of blood sugar, since the carbon in glutamine entry into the Krebs cycle and thus contribute to gluconeogenesis (glucose production). Moreover, glutamine also promotes consumption of whole body glucose uptake and glucose loaded / active muscles.
It is known that in order to ensure sufficient energy during exercise increases glucose uptake in the loaded and unencumbered tissues, liver – because of increased need for glucose – increased production of it. After exercise the uptake of glucose remains in the tissues increased for some time, but also increased sensitivity to insulin, which promotes the regeneration of glycogen in skeletal muscle and liver.