Psychophysiological insomnia and insomnia is the most common acquired form of insomnia. These patients have a feeling that poor sleep, which can be objectively confirmed by polysomnography recording (method for determining the stages of sleep; include at least three biological measurements: measurements of brain electrical activity-EEG, detection of eye movements, EOG, measuring the electrical activity of muscles under the chin-EMG) . Psychophysiological insomnia is most commonly in the chronic form (which explains why events in patients who were present at the beginning of the disease had long since forgotten). Usually patients are very concerned about their insomnia, slow to develop a vicious circle: when trying to sleep more and are more upset by this and thus reduce the opportunity to really fall asleep. Sleeping is slowly deteriorating until the patient’s primary and only thought of it becomes a desire to be a good sleep, which prevents this really, happened.
You can usually fall asleep in other situations when you do not think about how they slept, for example: watching TV, reading, driving … Even in an unfamiliar environment, for example: in a hotel on vacation, in the laboratory, sleep better than at home.
Most insomnia is a chronic condition, but there may be brief periods of good sleep, for example: during the leave. Various internal and external causes that lead to insomnia, aggravated by other factors, such as depression, pain, work in shifts, inadequate sleep environment, …
The frequency of disease among populations in different studies varies. In sleeping centers 15% of all people diagnosed with insomnia receive Psychophysiological insomnia. Disorder in childhood and adolescence is rare, usually first appears in smaller adults (20-30 years) and slowly increases until middle age. Repeatedly complain of insomnia women than men.
The clearance recording polysomnography these subjects found the parameters of insomnia, such as prolonged sleep latency, increased wakefulness during sleep, reduced sleep efficiency. A common phenomenon is the opposite of the first night: Patients in the sleeping laboratory sleep better than at home.
Today, on average, we sleep less than we burn a few decades ago, while (as in most developed countries in our country) increasing body mass index of the population. These two phenomena linked to each other? Is it really possible that breeds because lack of sleep?
Obesity in developed countries is fast becoming one of the leading causes of death – mostly indirectly, of course: obesity is the increased risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The problem with the fight against obesity is that the complex interweaving of causes that lead to obesity, there is no miracle cure, which would eliminate this scourge.
Many believe that to when and how we are hungry, what we eat and the extent to expend energy, affect our sleeping habits (more on the importance of sleep Sleep in the article). Indisputable fact that today, much less sleep as we sleep sometimes. The pressures on our personal time and its allocation are evil: mostly work for longer than we did, the more time devoted to self, family, increasing the amount of time we spend watching TV or the computer. All this affects the amount of time you can spend the night. Some research suggests that in developed countries, the average length of sleep in the last 50 years shorter for the whole two hours a night!
This topic has been carried out more research – both among adults than among adolescents and children, both in America and in Europe and Japan. In all studies have shown that there is a positive correlation between lack of sleep and obesity.
Researchers from Laval University in Quebec has been studied sleep habits of children 422 (211 boys and 211 girls) mean age of six and a half years. Measured as their height, weight and waist circumference, data on sleeping habits were obtained through interviews with parents. The results were unequivocal: he was too fat 1 in 5 boys and 1 in 4 girls. For children who slept an average of 10.5 to 11.5 hours a day, was likely to be obese, 40% higher than in children who slept 12 to 13 hours a day.
Similar findings have come in several studies in adults. The long continued research on health and nutrition of Americans (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey), for example, came to the following conclusions:in people who sleep less than seven hours a day, it appeared that the likelihood that obese at the very beginning of the study were higher than among those who sleep more;in people who sleep five hours a day, the likelihood of obesity was 73% higher than in those who slept 7 to 9 hours. For those who sleep six hours, the likelihood was 27% higher.
Why lack of sleep increases the chances of obesity?
Today the link between lack of sleep and obesity is no longer a complete mystery. It is known that sleep deprivation affects the secretion of two important, the hormones that regulate appetite: leptin and ghrelina.
Leptin secreted by fat cells, which reported on the status of fat stores. Leptin reduces appetite and stimulates metabolism. Ghrelin, secreted by specialized cells lining the stomach, but – quite the opposite – increases appetite. Low levels of leptin and high levels ghrelina means that the body needs energy, that is a signal for hunger.
That’s exactly what happens when lack of sleep. secretion of leptin is reduced, but increased secretion ghrelina, the result is:increased appetite (due to low levels of leptin and a too high level ghrelina) andslower metabolism (metabolism) (due to low levels of leptin).
The fact that we live in a society where the (energy-rich) foods most at your fingertips, it means only consume more food – not necessarily the actual energy needs.
Sleepless eat more:because our body with all the signals are telling that we are hungry;because we were exhausted and we seem to need more energy (in fact, take more rest!)because in insomnia be emotionally empty and looking for comfort food …
One explanation for why this happens is that it is an evolutionary adaptation: a man has got used to store energy in fat stores during the summer when nights are short and when there is plenty of food, so that in winter, when nights are long , food is in abundance, can also survive on their own (fatty) energy reserves.
How much would you need to sleep?
Despite the fact that the results of several studies on the connection between lack of sleep and obesity-match, but the scientific evidence on how much sleep should a man have to afford to avoid the dangers of sleep deprivation, no.
But from the findings of some studies suggest that the average man should sleep at least 8 hours a day. Anything less than 7 hours of sleep a day, is seriously tinkering with the physical and mental health. Lack of sleep can cause many inconveniences, such as problems with memory and concentration, chronic pain, impaired reflexes, difficulty in managing emotions, irritability, a weakened immune system, but can also lead us to obesity.
Of course there are people who sleep a little, but they do not have any problems with obesity. Usually they are quite hyperactive people who, due to the small number of sleeping hours in fact do not suffer, but in those few hours of sleep as needed, CWG own. The vast majority of us should ever do anything more for himself: to recognize that sleep is a waste of time and extended for at least an hour. Each extra hour of sleep counts!
Due to age, injury, illness, increased physical load and some other factors could lead to osteoarthritis, degenerative joint disease characterized by progressive destruction of normal articular cartilage and the cartilage of bone tissue. The main symptoms of osteoarthritis are pain in the affected joints, worsening of motion, joint swelling, ultimately can lead to anatomical deformation of the joints (characterized by thickening of the conclusions of the fingers).
Treatment of osteoarthritis includes the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, paracetamol, local injections of corticosteroids, hyaluronic acid, etc.., Surgical replacement of joints, in some cases, appropriate implantation of autologous chondrocytes also (newer procedure for reconstruction of articular cartilage).
To relieve the symptoms of osteoarthritis are used various thermal therapeutic procedures (eg cold and hot compresses), low intensity physical activity, various relaxation techniques and supports, as complementary therapy but may also be useful supplements of omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin B9 and B12, selenium , bromelain, hydrolysed collagen, chondroitin and glucosamine. A recent survey was published in a professional journal Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, showed that it can alleviate symptoms of osteoarthritis also effective creatine, the body’s own substance, which is involved in anaerobic ATP-PCR system, to provide power for the muscle and nerve cells.
Most of the more than 200 studies, which have until now dealt with the use of the additive effects of creatine on physical performance, has proven to be the only significant effect on the athlete’s capacity, which has the practical experience and millions of users.
The increased amount of creatine in muscle tissue, thus allowing greater flow of energy for high-intensitywork, regeneration of high-intensity exercise, the series can be faster, so the athlete can handle more work per unit time, through the activation of these satellite cell creatine allows muscle cell hypertrophy, etc.. Recent research also suggests that the consumption of creatine increases the local production of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) during training with weights, which also affects the more strained muscle hypertrophy.
Creatine is sometimes also used as part of the treatment of various diseases (muscular dystrophy, Alzheimer’s disease), has a positive effect on the sensitivity of body cells to the hormone insulin, which can benefit diabetics, improves cognitive function and may reduce homocysteine levels, which would be an important factor the risk of cardiovascular disease.
Creatine and osteoarthritis
The above study on the effects of creatine use on symptoms of osteoarthritis involving 26 women with knee osteoarthritis. The study lasted 12 weeks, women were divided into two groups (each 13). Both groups were carried out under professional supervision to train with weight. (the ejection of the knee on the bench, leg thrust and squat), as well as the first group received a supplement of creatine (the first week after the 20 g daily, then 5 g / day) and the other placebo.
The survey produced the following results: Functionality has been improved significantly only in patients who took creatine. Stiffness decreased only in patients who took creatine. Only women, who were taking creatine, have improved the quality of life indicators and the amount of lean mass of legs.
In both groups, it is important to reduce pain in the knees. Among the groups there was no difference in yield strength.
Research has already long list of positive effects of creatine added another option, but once again confirmed that, for people with osteoarthritis as exercise with weight. only useful and can contribute significantly to alleviating the symptoms, especially pain.
Healthy food should contain a minimum of saturated fatty acids (which are butter, bacon, lard, etc..) and salt, and as many vegetables, fruits and water-soluble fiber. Such foods reduce the fat in the blood, thereby protecting blood vessels. Should eat at least four times a day. Breakfast is one of the most important meal and it really should not let go. Last meal eat at least two hours before bedtime. Avoid snacks.
Fats are not banned, but aware of the need to be highly calorific and therefore must be consumed only in limited quantities, especially when taking the diet also reduced body weight.
In moderate quantities we consume polyunsaturated fatty acidsalso reduce the cholesterol in the blood. These fatty acids are vegetable oils (sunflower, corn, rapeseed) and in food products from these seeds. Very useful are the fish (sardine, tuna, etc..) Rich in omega 3 fatty acids These acids act on the heart protective. You should eat fish at least once a week.
Helpful monounsaturated fatty acidsin olive oil and avocados. Many experts recommend it in moderation, reducing cholesterol in the blood.
Harmful as saturated fatty acids contained in meat and meat products, cheese and whole milk, and, trans-fatty acids in margarine, because they increase the content of cholesterol and coronary risk. These food products should be avoided.
It is desirable to eat foods containing more fiber (cereals, vegetables, fruits, legumes and various nuts). These foods reduce cholesterol and LDL cholesterol more effectively than this can be achieved by limiting intake of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol. In addition, they provide a feeling of satiety and help regulate body weight. Soluble fiber (eg psyllium pods, guar gum, oat bran – 3g/day) effectively reduce cholesterol in the blood.
Green tea reduces the amount of harmful cholesterol and increasing beneficial HDL cholesterol content. Believe that catechin, a substance that inhibits the absorption of cholesterol in the intestines and promote its excretion from the body. Green tea contains antioxidant substances that would prevent the formation of cancer.
Numerous studies have shown that daily consumption of soy (20 to 40 g) instead of animal protein can reduce cholesterol.
The flowers and fruits of white hawthorn in folk medicine and homeopathy is very popular for the prevention of heart attacks, chest pain, arrhythmias and heart failure. Research has shown that the tincture of white hawthorn fruits effectively reduce cholesterol. Experiments have shown that in animals tincture cholesterol inhibits the formation of the liver in humans, this operation has not yet been confirmed.
Many studies have shown that garlic reduces cholesterol in the blood. It is not clear how much you need to eat and whether there is a difference in performance when consumed fresh garlic or garlic preparations.
People should increase the general intake of beneficial omega 3 fatty acids, as they are required for such body functions as building cell membranes in the brain or managing blood clotting. Scientists are still learning about the numerous advantages of omega-3, but right now this healthy fatty acid can positively influence: Depressions. Omega-3 fatty acid DHA ameliorates the symptoms of depression possibly because it stimulates the brain’s gray matter. Liver cancer. It can be an efficient therapy for the prevention but also for the treatment of liver cancers in humans. Dementia. The consumption of fatty fish, rich in omega-3, decreases the chances of developing various brain lesions which could lead to dementia and memory loss.
Cardiovascular disease. Several studies have revealed that omega-3 fatty acids lowers the risks of arrhythmias, the growth rate of atherosclerotic plaque and the levels of triglyceride.
Types of omega-3 fatty acids
The three main types of omega-3 fatty acids are docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA). Foods that are rich in omega-3 are such fatty fish as herring, salmon, anchovies, mackerel or sardines, and certain cold-water fish oil supplements. Other great sources are lake trout and canned (albacore) tuna, but it depends on the way the fish were raised and eventually processed.
There are a lot of discussions about getting omega-3 from foods containing ALA fatty acids, as it is the most widespread type of omega-3 in American diets and it is found in large amounts in walnuts, flax seeds and flax seed oil. Although your organism could change ALA into DHA and EPA, there are some people who are unable to do so. It is the main reason why you should include in your diet fatty fish oil supplements or fatty fish. However, if do not consume fish oil or fish, it is still a food thing to get only ALA as you will benefit from higher cardiovascular protection.
There are people who refuse to eat seafood as they have concerns over mercury and other potential toxins in the fish. However, experts in general claim that the overall advantages of eating a couple of servings of cold water fatty fish per week well outweigh the possible risks.
Going with the best omega-3 supplements
Keep in mind a couple of things when selecting an omega-3 supplement:
– One capsule of 500 mg per day is sufficient. A higher amount is not associated with increased benefits, but it can affect your health. The general recommendation is a daily intake of 1-3 grams of DHA and EPA. In the existence of some medical conditions, a higher amount of omega-3 might be useful, but it should be prescribed by a medical doctor.
– Go with molecularly distilled, pharmaceutical grade and mercury-free supplements. Check for the supplements to include EPA and DHA as well. Although it might be harder to find, but supplements containing a higher amount of EPA is preferred. An ideal ratio would be 3:2 (EPA: DHA).
– Always check the expiration date of the supplement!
The omega-6 to omega-3 ratio
Omega-6 and omega-3 fats are equally vital fats (the body cannot produce it and we have to get these fats from the foods we consume). The right balance of them is of great importance for various several reasons. For instance, omega-6 fats are of great help in promoting healing and avoiding infections, while omega-3 fats fight inflammations and deactivates the inflammatory response when it is nit needed anymore.
In our modern days, the proper ratio between omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids has suffered major changes in the western diet. Most frequently, people eat just too much omega-6 fatty acids and insufficient omega-3 fatty acids. The right ratio is the most vital elements that can lower the risks of depression, inflammatory conditions, cancer and heart disease.
How to balance the intake of omega fats:
– Lower the consumption of dairy products and meats;
– Stay away from such vegetable oils as safflower and corn oil;
– Eat more omega-3 rich foods, including wild caught cold water fish as salmon and foods as walnuts and flax seed oil.
Glycemic index is a number (usually between 0 and 100), which foods are classified according to how the ingestion of certain foods affect your blood sugar to rise compared to the reference food, which is determined to have a glycemic index of 100th Usually the food is chosen for the reference glucose solution. The higher the glycemic index is the higher will increase blood sugar.
Previous measurements of glycemic index foods have revealed interesting and – to many nutritional experts – a surprising fact: the prediction that all simple sugars and the foods that contain sugars, such as a higher glycemic index foods containing complex carbohydrates, is WRONG! In practice this means for example that the potatoes (starch, which contains a complex carbohydrate) is more than twice as high glycemic index such as Apple and even higher glycemic index than table sugar. The same is true for white bread, popcorn, watermelon, etc..
Importance of glycemic index
Carbohydrates are the primary source of power for the body. After ingestion of the carbohydrates in the diet first digested to simple sugars and then absorbed into the bloodstream, leading to an increase in blood sugar. Functioning of the body is the best, if blood sugar levels relatively constant, it is therefore not a significant variation. If the blood sugar level drops significantly, we feel no energy and become hungry. If the blood sugar level suddenly increased, however, the pancreas increases insulin secretion. Insulin lowers the amount of sugar in the blood, in addition, excess sugar is transformed into triglycerides, which are then stored in fat cells, which are bred.
The bigger and faster when the rise in blood sugar, more insulin is released, followed by a larger transformation in triglycerides and a rapid drop in blood sugar. And the fastest rise in sugar causing foods with high glycemic index.
Eating foods with low glycemic index, therefore, prevents fluctuations in blood sugar and thus insulin, as a result, fluctuations in welfare and an important mechanism for the accumulation of excess body fat.
At this point we have noted that the strong rise in blood sugar is not only responsible but the glycemic index has an important role in food consumption. Glycemic index in combination with carbohydrate intake gives you glycemic load. In practice this means that a rise in blood sugar more if we have eaten 200g of potato, pasta or 50g of chocolate, as if you could only afford a piece of chocolate. So you can keep your blood sugar under control by limiting the consumption of carbohydrates or by eating carbohydrates with low glycemic index.
Glycemic load may be calculated using the formula: